0
Research Papers

Mechanical Fatigue of Bovine Cortical Bone Using Ground Reaction Force Waveforms in Running

[+] Author and Article Information
Lindsay L. Loundagin

Human Performance Laboratory,
Faculty of Kinesiology,
University of Calgary,
2500 University Drive NW,
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada;
McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health,
University of Calgary,
Kinesiology Block B 221,
2500 University Drive NW,
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
e-mail: lindsay.loundagin@ucalgary.ca

Tannin A. Schmidt

Human Performance Laboratory,
Faculty of Kinesiology,
University of Calgary,
2500 University Drive NW,
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada;
McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health,
University of Calgary,
2500 University Drive NW,
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada;
Schulich School of Engineering,
University of Calgary,
Kinesiology Block B 426,
2500 University Drive NW,
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
e-mail: tschmidt@ucalgary.ca

W. Brent Edwards

Human Performance Laboratory,
Faculty of Kinesiology,
University of Calgary,
2500 University Drive NW,
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada;
McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health,
University of Calgary,
Kinesiology Block B 418,
2500 University Drive NW,
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
e-mail: wbedward@ucalgary.ca

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 10, 2017; final manuscript received October 20, 2017; published online January 17, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Kenneth Fischer.

J Biomech Eng 140(3), 031003 (Jan 17, 2018) (5 pages) Paper No: BIO-17-1101; doi: 10.1115/1.4038288 History: Received March 10, 2017; Revised October 20, 2017

Stress fractures are a common overuse injury among runners associated with the mechanical fatigue of bone. Several in vivo biomechanical studies have investigated specific characteristics of the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) in heel-toe running and have observed an association between increased loading rate during impact and individuals with a history of stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to examine the fatigue behavior of cortical bone using vGRF-like loading profiles, including those that had been decomposed into their respective impact and active phase components. Thirty-eight cylindrical cortical bone samples were extracted from bovine tibiae and femora. Hydrated samples were fatigue tested at room temperature in zero compression under load control using either a raw (n = 10), active (n = 10), low impact (n = 10), or high impact (n = 8) vGRF profile. The number of cycles to failure was quantified and the test was terminated if the sample survived 105 cycles. Fatigue life was significantly greater for both impact groups compared to the active (p < 0.001) and raw (p < 0.001) groups, with all low impact samples and 6 of 8 high impact samples surviving 105 cycles. The mean (± SD) number of cycles to failure for the active and raw groups was 12,133±11,704 and 16,552±29,612, respectively. The results suggest that loading rates associated with the impact phase of a typical vGRF in running have little influence on the mechanical fatigue behavior of bone relative to loading magnitude, warranting further investigation of the mechanism by which increased loading rates are associated with stress fracture.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Suresh, S. , 1998, Fatigue of Materials, Cambridge University Press, New York. [CrossRef]
Burr, D. B. , Turner, C. H. , Naick, P. , Forwood, M. R. , Ambrosius, W. , Sayeed Hasan, M. , and Pidaparti, R. , 1998, “Does Microdamage Accumulation Affect the Mechanical Properties of Bone?,” J. Biomech., 31(4), pp. 337–345. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Landrigan, M. D. , Li, J. , Turnbull, T. L. , Burr, D. B. , Niebur, G. L. , and Roeder, R. K. , 2011, “Contrast-Enhanced Micro-Computed Tomography of Fatigue Microdamage Accumulation in Human Cortical Bone,” Bone, 48(3), pp. 443–450. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Burr, D. , Milgrom, C. , Boyd, R. , Higgins, W. , Robin, G. , and Radin, E. , 1991, “Experimental Stress Fractures of the Tibia Biological and Mechanical Aetiology in Rabbits,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Br. Vol., 1(1), pp. 370–375. http://journals.lww.com/cjsportsmed/Citation/1991/01000/Experimental_stress_fractures_of_the_tibia_.18.aspx
Brubaker, C. , and James, S. , 1974, “Injuries to Runners,” J. Sports Med., 2(4), pp. 189–198. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Shorten, M. , and Mientjes, M. I. V. , 2011, “The ‘Heel Impact’ Force Peak During Running Is Neither ‘Heel’ nor ‘Impact’ and Does Not Quantify Shoe Cushioning Effects,” Footwear Sci., 3(1), pp. 40–58. [CrossRef]
Nigg, B. , 1986, Biomechanical Aspects of Running, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.
Cavanagh, P. R. , and Lafortune, M. A. , 1980, “Ground Reaction Forces in Distance Running,” J. Biomech., 13(5), pp. 397–406. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Munro, C. , Miller, D. , and Fuglevand, A. , 1987, “Ground Reactions Forces in Running: A Reexamination,” J. Biomech., 20(2), pp. 147–155. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Keller, T. , Weisberger, A. , Ray, J. , Hassan, S. , Shiavi, R. , and Spengler, D. , 1996, “Relationship Between Vertical Ground Reaction Force and Speed During Walking, Slow Jogging, and Running,” Clin. Biomech., 11(5), pp. 253–259. [CrossRef]
Derrick, T. R. , Gillette, J. C. , and Thomas, J. M. , 2005, “Extraction of the Impact From Vertical Ground Reaction Force,” 20th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB), Cleveland, OH, July 31–Aug. 5, p. 773. https://isbweb.org/images/conf/2005/abstracts/0773.pdf
Milner, C. E. , Ferber, R. , Pollard, C. D. , Hamill, J. , and Davis, I. S. , 2006, “Biomechanical Factors Associated With Tibial Stress Fracture in Female Runners,” Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 38(2), pp. 323–328. [CrossRef]
Ferber, R. , Davis, I. , Hamill, J. , Pollard, C. D. , and McKeown, K. , 2002, “Kinetic Variables in Subjects With Previous Lower Extremity Stress Fractures,” Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 34(5), p. S5. [CrossRef]
Davis, I. S. , Milner, C. E. , and Hamill, J. , 2004, “Does Increased Loading During Running Lead to Tibial Stress Fractures? A Prospective Study,” Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 36(5), p. S58.
Zadpoor, A. , and Nikooyan, A. , 2011, “The Relationship Between Lower-Extremity Stress Fractures and the Ground Reaction Force: A Systematic Review,” Clin. Biomech., 26(1), pp. 23–28. [CrossRef]
Davis, I. S. , Bowser, B. J. , and Mullineaux, D. R. , 2015, “Greater Vertical Impact Loading in Female Runners With Medically Diagnosed Injuries: A Prospective Investigation,” Br. J. Sports Med., 50(14), pp. 887–892. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Crowell, H. P. , and Davis, I. S. , 2011, “Gait Retraining to Reduce Lower Extremity Loading in Runners,” Clin. Biomech., 26(1), pp. 78–83. [CrossRef]
Crowell, H. P. , Milner, P. C. E. , Hamill, J. , and Davis, P. I. S. , 2010, “Reducing Impact Loading During Running With the Use of Real-Time Visual Feedback,” J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther., 40(4), pp. 206–213. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lieberman, D. E. , Venkadesan, M. , Werbel, W. A. , Daoud, A. I. , Andrea, S. D. , Davis, I. S. , Ojiambo, R. , Eni, M. , and Pitsiladis, Y. , 2010, “Foot Strike Patterns and Collision Forces in Habitually Barefoot Versus Shod Runners,” Nature, 463(28), pp. 531–535. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Carter, D. R. , and Caler, W. E. , 1983, “Cycle-Dependent and Time-Dependent Bone Fracture With Repeated Loading,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 105(2), pp. 166–170. [CrossRef]
Caler, W. E. , and Carter, D. R. , 1989, “Bone Creep-Fatigue Damage Accumulation,” J. Biomech., 22(6–7), pp. 625–635. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zioupos, P. , Currey, J. D. , and Casinos, A. , 2001, “Tensile Fatigue in Bone: Are Cycles-, or Time to Failure, or Both, Important?,” J. Theor. Biol., 210(3), pp. 389–399. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Taylor, D. , Brien, F. O. , Prina-mello, A. , Ryan, C. , Reilly, P. O. , and Lee, T. C. , 1999, “Compression Data on Bovine Bone Confirms That a ‘Stressed Volume’ Principle Explains the Variability of Fatigue Strength Results,” J. Biomech., 32(11), pp. 1199–1203. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Taylor, D. , 1998, “Fatigue of Bone and Bones: An Analysis Based on Stressed Volume,” J. Orthop. Res., 16(2), pp. 163–169. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Carter, D. R. , and Hayes, W. C. , 1976, “Fatigue Life of Compact Bone-I: Effects of Stress Amplitude, Temperature and Density,” J. Biomech., 9(1), pp. 27–34. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Edwards, W. B. , Taylor, D. , Rudolphi, T. J. , Gillette, J. C. , and Derrick, T. R. , 2009, “Effects of Stride Length and Running Mileage on a Probabilistic Stress Fracture Model,” Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 41(12), pp. 2177–2184. [CrossRef]
Vashishth, D. , Tanner, K. E. , and Bonfield, W. , 2001, “Fatigue of Cortical Bone Under Combined Axial-Torsional Loading,” J. Orthop. Res., 19(3), pp. 414–420. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
George, W. T. , and Vashishth, D. , 2005, “Damage Mechanisms and Failure Modes of Cortical Bone Under Components of Physiological Loading,” J. Orthop. Res., 23(5), pp. 1047–1053. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Warden, S. J. , Burr, D. B. , and Brukner, P. D. , 2006, “Stress Fractures: Pathophysiology, Epidemiology, and Risk Factors,” Curr. Osteoporos. Rep., 4(3), pp. 103–109. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Carter, D. R. , Caler, W. E. , Spengler, D. M. , and Frankel, V. H. , 1981, “Fatigue Behavior of Adult Cortical Bone: The Influence of Mean Strain and Strain Range,” Acta Orthop. Scand., 52(5), pp. 481–490. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Swanson, S. A. , Freeman, M. A. , and Day, W. H. , 1971, “The Fatigue Properties of Human Cortical Bone,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., 9(1), pp. 23–32. [CrossRef]
Gray, R. , and Korbacher, G. , 1974, “Compressive Fatigue Behavior of Bovine Compact Bone,” J. Biomech., 7(3), pp. 287–292. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gottschall, J. S. , and Kram, R. , 2005, “Ground Reaction Forces During Downhill and Uphill Running,” J. Biomech., 38(3), pp. 445–452. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Carter, D. R. , 1978, “Anisotropic Analysis of Strain Rosette Information From Cortical Bone,” J. Biomech., 11(4), pp. 199–202. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lanyon, L. E. , Hampson, W. G. , Goodship, A. E. , and Shah, J. S. , 1975, “Bone Deformation Recorded In Vivo From Strain Gauges Attached to the Human Tibial Shaft,” Acta Orthop. Scand., 46(2), pp. 256–68. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Burr, D. , Milgrom, C. , Fyhrie, D. , Forwood, M. , Nyska, M. , Finestone, A. , Hoshaw, S. , Saiag, E. , and Simkin, A. , 1996, “In Vivo Measurement of Human Tibial Strains During Vigorous Activity,” Bone, 18(5), pp. 405–410. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bobbert, M. , Schamhardt, H. , and Nigg, B. , 1991, “Calculation of Vertical Ground Reaction Force Estimates During Running From Positional Data,” J. Biomech., 24(12), pp. 1095–1105. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Derrick, T. R. , Edwards, W. B. , Fellin, R. E. , and Seay, J. F. , 2016, “An Integrative Modeling Approach for the Efficient Estimation of Cross Sectional Tibial Stresses During Locomotion,” J. Biomech., 49(3), pp. 429–435. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Milgrom, C. , Radeva-petrova, D. R. , Finestone, A. , Nyska, M. , Mendelson, S. , Benjuya, N. , Simkin, A. , and Burr, D. , 2007, “The Effect of Muscle Fatigue on In Vivo Tibial Strains,” J. Biomech., 40(4), pp. 845–850. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Beck, T. J. , Ruff, C. B. , Shaffer, R. A. , Betsinger, K. , Trone, D. W. , and Brodine, S. K. , 2000, “Stress Fracture in Military Recruits: Gender Differences in Muscle and Bone Susceptibility Factors,” Bone, 27(3), pp. 437–444. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Schnackenburg, K. E. , Macdonald, H. M. , Ferber, R. , Wiley, J. P. , and Boyd, S. K. , 2011, “Bone Quality and Muscle Strength in Female Athletes With Lower Limb Stress Fractures,” Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 43(11), pp. 2110–2119. [CrossRef]
Clansey, A. C. , Hanlon, M. , Wallace, E. S. , and Lake, M. J. , 2012, “Effects of Fatigue on Running Mechanics Associated With Tibial Stress Fracture Risk,” Med. Sci. Sport. Exercise, 44(10), pp. 1917–1923. [CrossRef]
Biewner, A. , 1991, “Musculoskeletal Design in Relation to Body Size,” J. Biomech., 24(1), pp. 19–29. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Boden, B. P. , Osbahr, D. C. , and Jimenez, C. , 2001, “Low-Risk Stress Fractures,” Am. J. Sports Med., 29(1), pp. 100–111. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Mean (± SD) number of loading cycles for the raw, active, low impact, and high impact. *Significantly different from both impact groups (p < 0.001).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Stress as a function of time for the raw, active, low impact, and high impact loading profiles

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In