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research-article

Mechanical Fatigue of Bovine Cortical Bone Using Ground Reaction Force Waveforms in Running

[+] Author and Article Information
Lindsay L Loundagin

Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of KinesiologyMcCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health, University of Calgary Kinesiology Bloc B 221 University of Calgary 2500 University Drive NW Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4
lindsay.loundagin@ucalgary.ca

Tannin Schmidt

Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of KinesiologyMcCaig Institute for Bone and Joint HealthSchulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary Kinesiology Bloc B 426 University of Calgary 2500 University Drive NW Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4
tschmidt@ucalgary.ca

W. Brent Edwards

Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of KinesiologyMcCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health University of Calgary Kinesiology Bloc B 418 University of Calgary 2500 University Drive NW Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4
wbedward@ucalgary.ca

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4038288 History: Received March 10, 2017; Revised October 20, 2017

Abstract

Stress fractures are common overuse injuries amongst runners associated with the mechanical fatigue of bone. Several in vivo biomechanical studies have investigated specific characteristics of the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) in running and have observed an association between increased loading rate during impact and individuals with a history of stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to examine the fatigue behavior of cortical bone using vGRF-like loading profiles, including those that had been decomposed into their respective impact and active phase components. Thirty-eight cortical bone samples were extracted from bovine tibiae and femora. Hydrated samples were fatigue tested at room temperature in compression under load control using either a raw (n=10), active (n=10), low impact (n=10), or high impact (n=8) vGRF profile. The number of cycles to failure was quantified and the test was terminated if the sample survived 105 cycles. Fatigue life was significantly greater for both impact groups compared to the active and raw groups (p<0.001), with all low impact and 6 of 8 high impact samples surviving 105 cycles. The mean (± SD) number of cycles to failure for the active and raw groups were 12133 ± 11704 and 16552 ± 29612, respectively. The results suggest that loading rates associated with the impact phase of a typical vGRF in running have little influence on the mechanical fatigue behavior of bone relative to loading magnitude, warranting further investigation of the mechanism by which increased loading rates are associated with stress fracture.

Copyright (c) 2017 by ASME
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