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Research Papers

A Finite Element Model of a Midsize Male for Simulating Pedestrian Accidents

[+] Author and Article Information
Costin D. Untaroiu

Department of Biomedical
Engineering and Mechanics,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24060
e-mail: costin@vt.edu

Wansoo Pak, Yunzhu Meng

Department of Biomedical
Engineering and Mechanics,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24060

Jeremy Schap, Bharath Koya, Scott Gayzik

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
Wake Forest University School of Medicine,
Winston-Salem, NC 27101

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 9, 2017; final manuscript received August 31, 2017; published online October 19, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Brian D. Stemper.

J Biomech Eng 140(1), 011003 (Oct 19, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: BIO-17-1058; doi: 10.1115/1.4037854 History: Received February 09, 2017; Revised August 31, 2017

Pedestrians represent one of the most vulnerable road users and comprise nearly 22% the road crash-related fatalities in the world. Therefore, protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian collisions (CPC) has recently generated increased attention with regulations involving three subsystem tests. The development of a finite element (FE) pedestrian model could provide a complementary component that characterizes the whole-body response of vehicle–pedestrian interactions and assesses the pedestrian injuries. The main goal of this study was to develop and to validate a simplified full body FE model corresponding to a 50th male pedestrian in standing posture (M50-PS). The FE model mesh and defined material properties are based on a 50th percentile male occupant model. The lower limb-pelvis and lumbar spine regions of the human model were validated against the postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) test data recorded in four-point lateral knee bending tests, pelvic\abdomen\shoulder\thoracic impact tests, and lumbar spine bending tests. Then, a pedestrian-to-vehicle impact simulation was performed using the whole pedestrian model, and the results were compared to corresponding PMHS tests. Overall, the simulation results showed that lower leg response is mostly within the boundaries of PMHS corridors. In addition, the model shows the capability to predict the most common lower extremity injuries observed in pedestrian accidents. Generally, the validated pedestrian model may be used by safety researchers in the design of front ends of new vehicles in order to increase pedestrian protection.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Data sources for the development of 50th percentile male FE model: (a) acquisition of upright MRI-scans and (b) surface topography and bony landmark acquisition

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Fig. 2

(a) Final M50 detailed CAD model and (b) corresponding LS-Dyna M50-PS FE model

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Fig. 3

The FE setup of the knee bending validation

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Fig. 4

The FE setup of the lumbar spine validation. Lumbar spine (a) in undeformed shape, (b) in extension, (c) in flexion, and (d) in lateral bending.

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Fig. 5

The FE setup of (a) pelvic, (b) thoracic, (c) abdomen, and (d) shoulder lateral loading

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Fig. 6

The FE setup of the vehicle-to-pedestrian FE validation

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Fig. 7

Comparison FE data versus PMHS data (a) bending tests. The load-cell moment versus knee angle curves (b) lumbar spine tests. The peak moment.

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Fig. 8

The time histories of impact force in lateral pelvis impact: FE model versus PMHS test data (a) 5.2 m/s impactor initial velocity and (b) 9.8 m/s impactor initial velocity

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Fig. 9

The time histories of impact force in thorax impact: FE model versus PMHS test data: (a) 4.4 m/s impactor initial velocity, (b) 6.5 m/s impactor initial velocity, and (c) 9.5 m/s impactor initial velocity

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Fig. 10

The time histories of impact force in abdomen impact: FE model versus PMHS test data: (a) 4.8 m/s impactor initial velocity, (b) 6.8 m/s impactor initial velocity, and (c) 9.4 m/s impactor initial velocity

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Fig. 11

The time histories of impact force in lateral shoulder impact: FE model versus PMHS test data (a) 4.5 m/s impactor initial velocity and (b) 6.8 m/s impactor initial velocity

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Fig. 12

The overall pedestrian kinematics FE model versus PMHS test data (a) t = 0 ms, (b) t = 40 ms, (c) t = 60 ms, (d) 80 ms, and (e) 100 ms. (Reprinted with permission from Kerrigan et al. [28]. Copyright 2007 by Inderscience Publishers.)

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Fig. 13

The pedestrian kinematics-marker trajectories relative to the car: FE model versus PMHS test data (a) head CG, (b) T1, and (c) sacrum

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