Technical Brief

Reporting the Fatigue Life of 316L Stainless Steel Locking Compression Plate Implants: The Role of the Femoral and Tibial Biomechanics During the Gait

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohamed Shaat

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
New Mexico State University,
Las Cruces, NM 88003
e-mails: shaat@nmsu.edu;

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 25, 2017; final manuscript received July 29, 2017; published online August 18, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Pasquale Vena.

J Biomech Eng 139(10), 104502 (Aug 18, 2017) (5 pages) Paper No: BIO-17-1127; doi: 10.1115/1.4037561 History: Received March 25, 2017; Revised July 29, 2017

In this study, the fatigue characteristics of femoral and tibial locking compression plate (LCP) implants are determined accounting for the knee biomechanics during the gait. A biomechanical model for the kinematics and kinetics of the knee joint during the complete gait cycle is proposed. The rotations of the femur, tibia, and patella about the knee joint during the gait are determined. Moreover, the patellar-tendon force (PT), quadriceps-tendon force (QT), the tibiofemoral joint force (TFJ), and the patellofemoral joint force (PFJ) through the standard gait cycle are obtained as functions of the body weight (BW). On the basis of the derived biomechanics of the knee joint, the fatigue factors of safety along with the fatigue life of 316L stainless steel femoral and tibial LCP implants are reported as functions of the BW and bone fracture location, for the first time. The reported results reveal that 316L stainless steel LCP implants for femoral surgeries are preferred for conditions in which the bone fracture is close to the knee joint and the BW is less than 80 kg. For tibial surgeries, 316L stainless steel LCP implants can be used for conditions in which the bone fracture is close to the knee joint and the BW is less than 100 kg. This study presents a critical guide for the determination of the fatigue characteristics of LCP implants. The obtained results reveal that the fatigue analyses should be performed on the basis of the body biomechanics to guarantee accurate designs of LCP implants for femoral and tibial orthopedic surgeries.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Tsai, S. , Fitzpatrick, D. C. , Madey, S. M. , and Bottlang, M. , 2015, “ Dynamic Locking Plates Provide Symmetric Axial Dynamization to Stimulate Fracture Healing,” J. Orthop. Res., 33(8), pp. 1218–1225. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lenz, M. , Stoffel, K. , Gueorguiev, B. , Klos, K. , Kielstein, H. , and Hofmann, G. O. , 2016, “ Enhancing Fixation Strength in Periprosthetic Femur Fractures by Orthogonal Plating—A Biomechanical Study,” J. Orthop. Res., 34(4), pp. 591–596. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Frigg, R. , 2003, “ Development of the Locking Compression Plate,” Injury, 34(Suppl. 2), pp. 6–10. [CrossRef]
Aslam, N. , Hazarika, S. , Nagarajah, K. , and McNab, I. , 2005, “ AO 2 mm Locking Compression Plate for Arthrodesis of the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint,” Injury Extra, 36(10), pp. 428–431. [CrossRef]
Stoffel, K. , Cunneen, S. , Morgan, R. , Nicholls, R. , and Stachowiak, G. , 2008, “ Comparative Stability of Perpendicular Versus Parallel Double-Locking Plating Systems in Osteoporotic Comminuted Distal Humerus Fractures,” J. Orthop. Res., 26(6), pp. 778–784. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kanchanomai, C. , Phiphobmongkol, V. , and Muanjan, P. , 2008, “ Fatigue Failure of an Orthopedic Implant—A Locking Compression Plate,” Eng. Failure Anal., 15(5), pp. 521–530. [CrossRef]
Nassiri, M. , MacDonald, B. , and O'Byrne, J. M. , 2012, “ Locking Compression Plate Breakage and Fracture Non-Union: A Unite Element Study of Three Patient-Specific Cases,” Eur. J. Orthop. Surg. Traumatol., 22(4), pp. 275–281. [CrossRef]
van Meeteren, M. C. , van Rief, Y. E. , Roukema, J. A. , and van Der Werken, C. , 1996, “ Condylar Plate Fixation of Subtrochanteric Femoral Fractures,” Injury, 27(10), pp. 715–717. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sivakumar, M. , Mudali, U. K. , and Rajeswari, S. , 1994, “ Investigation of Failures in Stainless Steel Orthopaedic Implant Devices Fatigue Failure Due to Improper Fixation of a Compression Bone Plate,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 13(2), pp. 142–145. [CrossRef]
Leinenbach, C. , Fleck, C. , and Eifler, D. , 2004, “ The Cyclic Deformation Behaviour and Fatigue Induced Damage of the Implant Alloy TiAl6Nb7 in Simulated Physiological Media,” Int. J. Fatigue, 26(8), pp. 857–864. [CrossRef]
Schüller, M. , Drobetz, H. , Redl, H. , and Tschegg, E. K. , 2009, “ Analysis of the Fatigue Behaviour Characterized by Stiffness and Permanent Deformation for Different Distal Volar Radius Compression Plates,” Mater. Sci. Eng., C, 29(8), pp. 2471–2477. [CrossRef]
Fleck, C. , and Eifler, D. , 2010, “ Corrosion, Fatigue and Corrosion Fatigue Behaviour of Metal Implant materials, Especially Titanium Alloys,” Int. J. Fatigue, 32(6), pp. 929–935. [CrossRef]
Sealy, M. P. , Guo, Y. B. , Caslaru, R. C. , Sharkins, J. , and Feldman, D. , 2016, “ Fatigue Performance of Biodegradable Magnesium–Calcium Alloy Processed by Laser Shock Peening for Orthopedic Implants,” Int. J. Fatigue, 82(Pt. 3), pp. 428–436. [CrossRef]
Gervais, B. , Vadeana, A. , Raisona, M. , and Brochua, M. , 2016, “ Failure Analysis of a 316L Stainless Steel Femoral Orthopedic Implant,” Case Stud. Eng. Failure Anal., 5–6, pp. 30–38. [CrossRef]
Okazaki, Y. , Ishii, D. , and Ogawa, A. , 2017, “ Spatial Stress Distribution Analysis by Thermoelastic Stress Measurement and Evaluation of Effect of Stress Concentration on Durability of Various Orthopedic Implant Devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng., C, 75, pp. 34–42. [CrossRef]
Chao, P. , Conrad, B. P. , Lewis, D. D. , Horodyski, M. , and Pozzi, A. , 2013, “ Effect of Plate Working Length on Plate Stiffness and Cyclic Fatigue Life in a Cadaveric Femoral Fracture Gap Model Stabilized With a 12-Hole 2.4 mm Locking Compression Plate,” BMC Vet. Res., 9(1), p. 125. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Miller, D. , and Goswami, T. , 2007, “ A Review of Locking Compression Plate Biomechanics and Their Advantages as Internal Fixators in Fracture Healing,” Clin. Biochem., 22(10), pp. 1049–1062.
Sommer, C. , Gautier, E. , Müller, M. , Helfet, D. L. , and Wagner, M. , 2003, “ First Clinical Results of the Locking Compression Plate (LCP),” Injury, 34(Suppl. 2), pp. 43–54. [CrossRef]
Oh, J.-K. , Sahu, D. , Ahn, Y.-H. , Lee, S.-J. , Tsutsumi, S. , Hwang, J.-H. , Jung, D.-Y. , Perren, S. M. , and Oh, C.-W. , 2010, “ Effect of Fracture Gap on Stability of Compression Plate Fixation: A Finite Element Study,” J. Orthop. Res., 28(4), pp. 462–467. [PubMed]
DeLisa, J. A. , 1998, Gait Analysis in the Science of Rehabilitation, Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Washington, DC.
Ivanenko, Y. P. , Poppele, R. E. , and Lacquaniti, F. , 2004, “ Five Basic Muscle Activation Patterns Account for Muscle Activity During Human Locomotion,” J. Physiol., 556(Pt. 1), pp. 267–282. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Erdemir, A. , McLean, S. , Herzog, W. , and van den Bogert, A. J. , 2007, “ Model-Based Estimation of Muscle Forces Exerted During Movements,” Clin. Biomech., 22(2), pp. 131–154. [CrossRef]
Renner, S. , 2007, “ Determination of Muscle Forces Acting on the Femur and Stress Analysis,” Master thesis, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.
Messier, S. P. , Legault, C. , Loeser, R. F. , Van Arsdale, S. J. , Davis, C. , Ettinger, W. H. , and DeVita, P. , 2011, “ Does High Weight Loss in Older Adults With Knee Osteoarthritis Affect Bone-On-Bone Joint Loads and Muscle Forces During Walking?,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 19(3), pp. 272–280. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
NithinKumar, K. C. , Tandon, T. , Silori, P. , and Shaikh, A. , 2015, “ Biomechanical Stress Analysis of a Human Femur Bone Using ANSYS,” Mater. Today: Proc., 2(4–5), pp. 2115–2120.
Cleather, D. J. , Southgate, D. F. L. , and Bull, A. M. J. , 2014, “ On the Role of the Patella, ACL and Joint Contact Forces in the Extension of the Knee,” PLoS One, 9(12), p. e115670. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bersini, S. , Sansone, V. , and Frigo, C. A. , 2016, “ A Dynamic Multibody Model of the Physiological Knee to Predict Internal Loads During Movement in Gravitational Field,” Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng., 19(5), pp. 571–579. [CrossRef]
Huang, J. Y. , Yeh, J. J. , Jeng, S. L. , Chen, C. Y. , and Kuo, R. C. , 2006, “ High-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Type 316L Stainless Steel,” Mater. Trans., 47(2), pp. 409–417. [CrossRef]
Budynas, R. G. , and Nisbett, J. K. , 2011, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 9th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
Martinez-Villalpando, E. C. , and Herr, H. , 2009, “ Agonist-Antagonist Active Knee Prosthesis: A Preliminary Study in Level-Ground Walking,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev., 46(3), pp. 361–374. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Leszko, F. , Sharma, A. , Komistek, R. D. , Mahfouz, M. R. , Cates, H. E. , and Scuderi, G. R. , 2010, “ Comparison of In Vivo Patellofemoral Kinematics for Subjects Having High-Flexion Total Knee Arthroplasty Implant With Patients Having Normal Knees,” J. Arthroplasty, 25(3), pp. 398–404. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Herzog, W. , and Read, L. J. , 1993, “ Lines of Action and Moment Arms of the Major Force-Carrying Structures Crossing the Human Knee Joint,” J. Anat., 182(Pt. 2), pp. 213–230. [PubMed]
Barela, A. M. F. , de Freitas, P. B. , Celestino, M. L. , Camargo, M. R. , and Barela, J. A. , 2014, “ Ground Reaction Forces During Level Ground Walking With Body Weight Unloading,” Braz. J. Phys. Ther., 18(6), pp. 572–579. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Shigley, J. E. , Mischke, C. R. , and Brown, T. H. , 2004, Standard Handbook of Machine Design, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
Shelburne, K. B. , Torry, M. R. , and Pandy, M. G. , 2005, “ Muscle, Ligament, and Joint-Contact Forces at the Knee During Walking,” Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 37(11), pp. 1948–1956. [CrossRef]
Kim, H. J. , Fernandez, J. W. , Akbarshahi, M. , Walter, J. P. , Fregly, B. J. , and Pandy, M. G. , 2009, “ Evaluation of Predicted Knee-Joint Muscle Forces During Gait Using an Instrumented Knee Implant,” J. Orthop. Res., 27(10), pp. 1326–1331. [CrossRef] [PubMed]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Experimental validation of the proposed model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Variations of the GRF, QT, PT, TFJ, and PFJ forces during the stance phase

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Variations of the flexion angle, k, along with the tilt angles of the femoral, tibial, and patellar axes, k¯, γ¯, and ρ¯, during the gait. (b) Variations of α, β, ρ, and π angles during the gait cycle.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The kinematic and kinetic descriptions of a knee joint mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Fatigue factors of safety of (a) femoral LCP implants and (b) tibial LCP implants as functions of the BW for various bone fracture locations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Fatigue life of (a) femoral LCPs and (b) tibial LCPs as functions of the BW for various bone fracture locations




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In