0
Research Papers

The Role of Neck Muscle Activities on the Risk of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in American Football

[+] Author and Article Information
Xin Jin, Zhaoying Feng, Valerie Mika, King H. Yang

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
Wayne State University,
Detroit, MI 48201

Haiyan Li

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
Wayne State University,
Detroit, MI 48201;
College of Mechanical Engineering,
Tianjin University of Science and Technology,
Tianjin 300222, China

David C. Viano

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
Wayne State University,
Detroit, MI 48201;
Probiomechanics LLC,
Bloomfield Hills, MI 48304

Manuscript received April 28, 2016; final manuscript received July 11, 2017; published online August 16, 2017. Editor: Beth A. Winkelstein.

J Biomech Eng 139(10), 101002 (Aug 16, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: BIO-16-1174; doi: 10.1115/1.4037399 History: Received April 28, 2016; Revised July 11, 2017

Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is frequently associated with sports activities. It has generally been accepted that neck strengthening exercises are effective as a preventive strategy for reducing sports-related concussion risks. However, the interpretation of the link between neck strength and concussion risks remains unclear. In this study, a typical helmeted head-to-head impact in American football was simulated using the head and neck complex finite element (FE) model. The impact scenario selected was previously reported in lab-controlled incident reconstructions from high-speed video footages of the National Football League using two head-neck complexes taken from Hybrid III dummies. Four different muscle activation strategies were designed to represent no muscle response, a reactive muscle response, a pre-activation response, and response due to stronger muscle strength. Head kinematics and various head/brain injury risk predictors were selected as response variables to compare the effects of neck muscles on the risk of sustaining the concussion. Simulation results indicated that active responses of neck muscles could effectively reduce the risk of brain injury. Also, anticipatory muscle activation played a dominant role on impact outcomes. Increased neck strength can decrease the time to compress the neck and its effects on reducing brain injury risks need to be further studied.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Faul, M. , Xu, L. , Wald, M. M. , and Coronado, V. G. , 2010, “ Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths 2002–2006,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta, GA. https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/pdf/blue_book.pdf
Delaney, T. , and Madigan, T. , 2015, The Sociology of Sports: An Introduction, 2nd ed., Mcfarland & Company, Jefferson, NC.
CDC, 2011, “ Nonfatal Traumatic Brain Injuries Related to Sports and Recreation Activities Among Persons Aged ≤ 19 Years—United States, 2001–2009,” Morbidity Mortal. Wkly. Rep., 60(39), pp. 1337–1342. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6039.pdf
Viano, D. C. , Casson, I. R. , and Pellman, E. J. , 2007, “ Concussion in Professional Football: Biomechanics of the Struck Player—Part 14,” Neurosurgery, 61(2), pp. 313–327. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Collins, C. L. , Fletcher, E. N. , Fields, S. K. , Kluchurosky, L. , Rohrkemper, M. K. , Comstock, R. D. , and Cantu, R. C. , 2014, “ Neck Strength: A Protective Factor Reducing Risk for Concussion in High School Sports,” J. Primary Prev., 35(5), pp. 309–319. [CrossRef]
Tierney, R. T. , Sitler, M. R. , Swanik, C. B. , Swanik, K. A. , Higgins, M. , and Torg, J. , 2005, “ Gender Differences in Head-Neck Segment Dynamic Stabilization During Head Acceleration,” Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 37(2), pp. 272–279. [CrossRef]
Conley, M. S. , Stone, M. H. , Nimmons, M. , and Dudley, G. A. , 1997, “ Resistance Training and Human Cervical Muscle Recruitment Plasticity,” J. Appl. Physiol., 83(6), pp. 2105–2011. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9390988 [PubMed]
Cross, K. M. , and Serenelli, C. , 2003, “ Training and Equipment to Prevent Athletic Head and Neck Injuries,” Clin, Sports Med., 22(3), pp. 639–667. [CrossRef]
Salmon, D. M. , Harrison, M. F. , and Neary, J. P. , 2011, “ Neck Pain in Military Helicopter Aircrew and the Role of Exercise Therapy,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 82(10), pp. 978–987. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mansell, J. , Tierney, R. T. , Sitler, M. R. , Swanik, K. A. , and Stearne, D. , 2005, “ Resistance Training and Head-Neck Segment Dynamic Stabilization in Male and Female Collegiate Soccer Players,” J. Athl. Train., 40(4), pp. 310–319. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16404453 [PubMed]
Mihalik, J. P. , Guskiewicz, K. M. , Marshall, S. W. , Greenwald, R. M. , Blackburn, J. T. , and Cantu, R. C. , 2011, “ Does Cervical Muscle Strength in Youth Ice Hockey Players Affect Head Impact Biomechanics?,” Clin. J. Sport Med., 21(5), pp. 416–421. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lincoln, A. E. , Caswell, S. V. , and Almquist, J. L. , Dunn, R. E. , and Hinton, R. Y. , 2013, “ Video Incident Analysis of Concussions in Boys' High School Lacrosse,” Am. J. Sports Med., 41(4), pp. 756–61. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mihalik, J. P. , Blackburn, J. T. , Greenwald, R. M. , Cantu, R. C. , Marshall, S. W. , and Guskiewicz, K. M. , 2010, “ Collision Type and Player Anticipation Affect Head Impact Severity Among Youth Ice Hockey Players,” Pediatrics, 125(6), pp. e1394–e1401. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mao, H. , Zhang, L. , Jiang, B. , Genthikatti, V. V. , Jin, X. , Zhu, F. , Makwana, R. , Gill, A. , Jandir, G. , Singh, A. , and Yang, K. H. , 2013, “ Development of a Finite Element Human Head Model Validated With Thirty Five Experimental Cases,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 135(11), p. 111002. [CrossRef]
Fice, J. B. , 2010, “ Numerical Modeling of Whiplash Injury,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada. https://uwspace.uwaterloo.ca/bitstream/handle/10012/5636/Fice_Jason.pdf?sequence=1
Zhang, L. , Dwarampudi, R. , Yang, K. H. , and King, A. I. , 2003,“ Effectiveness of the Football Helmet Assessed by Finite Element Modeling and Impact Testing,” IRCOBI Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, Sept. 25–26, pp. 27–38. http://www.ircobi.org/wordpress/downloads/irc0111/2003/Session1/1.2.pdf
van der Horst, M. , Thunnissen, J. , Happee, R. , van Haaster, R. , and Wismans, J. S. H. M. , 1997, “ The Influence of Muscle Activity on Head-Neck Response During Impact,” SAE Paper No. 973346.
Fung, Y. C. , 1993, Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues, 2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, New York.
Gurdjian, E. S. , Lissner, H. R. , Latimer, F. R. , Haddad, B. F. , and Webster, J. E. , 1953, “ Quantitative Determination of Acceleration and Intracranial Pressure in Experimental Head Injury,” Neurology, 3(6), pp. 417–423. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lissner, H. R. , Lebow, M. , and Evans, F. G. , 1960, “ Experimental Studies on the Relation Between Acceleration and Intracranial Pressure Changes in Man,” Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 111, pp. 329–338. [PubMed]
Holburn, A. H. S. , 1943, “ Mechanics of Head Injuries,” Lancet, 242(6267), pp. 438–441. [CrossRef]
Viano, D. C. , Casson, I. R. , Pellman, E. J. , Zhang, L. , King, A. I. , and Yang, K. H. , 2005, “ Concussion in Professional Football: Brain Responses by Finite Element Analysis—Part 9,” J. Neurosurg., 57(5), pp. 891–916. [CrossRef]
Takhounts, E. G. , Craig, M. J. , Moorhouse, K. , McFadden, J. , and Hasija, V. , 2013, “ Development of Brain Injury Criteria (BrIC),” Stapp Car Crash J., 57, pp. 243–266. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24435734 [PubMed]
Takhounts, E. G. , Eppinger, R. H. , Campbell, J. Q. , Tannous, R. E. , Power, E. D. , and Shook, L. S. , 2003, “ On the Development of the SIMon Finite Element Head Model,” Stapp Car Crash J., 47, pp. 107–133. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17096247 [PubMed]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The head and neck complex extracted from the GHBM. (a) and (b) bulk muscles for simulating passive response; (c) and (d) 27 pairs of active muscles.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Stress–strain curve defined for helmet foam

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Determination of the impact location and direction using trial and error method by comparing (a) impact force, (b) translational velocity, and (c) translational acceleration calculated from simulations to those reported experimental data by Viano et al. [4]. (a) Frontal view and (b) top view.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Final impact location and direction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparisons of head rotational velocities among all setups

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Distributions of elements exceeded the injury threshold of 15% at 35 ms postimpact for No_muscle (volume = 27.4%) and Early_activation (volume = 17.8%) setups

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Neck compression under different muscle strengths

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In