0
Research Papers

Computational Parametric Analysis of the Mechanical Response of Structurally Varying Pacinian Corpuscles

[+] Author and Article Information
Julia C. Quindlen, Victor H. Barocas

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Burak Güçlü

Institute of Biomedical Engineering,
Boğaziçi University,
Istanbul 34335, Turkey

Eric A. Schepis

Institute for Sensory Research,
Syracuse University,
Syracuse, NY 13244

Manuscript received December 12, 2016; final manuscript received April 26, 2017; published online June 6, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Eric A Kennedy.

J Biomech Eng 139(7), 071012 (Jun 06, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: BIO-16-1512; doi: 10.1115/1.4036603 History: Received December 12, 2016; Revised April 26, 2017

The Pacinian corpuscle (PC) is a cutaneous mechanoreceptor that senses low-amplitude, high-frequency vibrations. The PC contains a nerve fiber surrounded by alternating layers of solid lamellae and interlamellar fluid, and this structure is hypothesized to contribute to the PC's role as a band-pass filter for vibrations. In this study, we sought to evaluate the relationship between the PC's material and geometric parameters and its response to vibration. We used a spherical finite element mechanical model based on shell theory and lubrication theory to model the PC's outer core. Specifically, we analyzed the effect of the following structural properties on the PC's frequency sensitivity: lamellar modulus (E), lamellar thickness (h), fluid viscosity (μ), PC outer radius (Ro), and number of lamellae (N). The frequency of peak strain amplification (henceforth “peak frequency”) and frequency range over which strain amplification occurred (henceforth “bandwidth”) increased with lamellar modulus or lamellar thickness and decreased with an increase in fluid viscosity or radius. All five structural parameters were combined into expressions for the relationship between the parameters and peak frequency, ωpeak=1.605×106N3.475(Eh/μRo), or bandwidth, B=1.747×106N3.951(Eh/μRo). Although further work is needed to understand how mechanical variability contributes to functional variability in PCs and how factors such as PC eccentricity also affect PC behavior, this study provides two simple expressions that can be used to predict the impact of structural or material changes with aging or disease on the frequency response of the PC.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Abraira, V. E. , and Ginty, D. D. , 2013, “ The Sensory Neurons of Touch,” Neuron, 79(4), pp. 618–639. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Johnson, K. O. , 2001, “ The Roles and Functions of Cutaneous Mechanoreceptors,” Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 11(4), pp. 455–461. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yau, J. M. , Kim, S. S. , Thakur, P. H. , and Bensmaia, S. J. , 2016, “ Feeling Form: The Neural Basis of Haptic Shape Perception,” J. Neurophysiol., 115(2), pp. 631–642. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Saal, H. P. , and Bensmaia, S. J. , 2014, “ Touch is a Team Effort: Interplay of Submodalities in Cutaneous Sensibility,” Trends Neurosci., 37(12), pp. 689–697. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Muniak, M. A. , Ray, S. , Hsiao, S. S. , Dammann, J. F. , and Bensmaia, S. J. , 2007, “ The Neural Coding of Stimulus Intensity: Linking the Population Response of Mechanoreceptive Afferents With Psychophysical Behavior,” J. Neurosci., 27(43), pp. 11687–11699. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zelená, J. , 1994, Nerves and Mechanoreceptors: The Role of Innervation in the Development and Maintenance of Mammalian Mechanoreceptors, Chapman and Hall, London.
Choi, B. S. , and Kuchenbecker, K. J. , 2013, “ Vibrotactile Display: Perception, Technology, and Applications,” Proc. IEEE, 101(9), pp. 2093–2104. [CrossRef]
Yoo, Y. , Hwang, I. , and Choi, S. , 2014, “ Consonance of Vibrotactile Chords,” IEEE Trans. Haptics, 7(1), pp. 3–13. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bensmaïa, S. , and Hollins, M. , 2000, “ Complex Tactile Waveform Discrimination,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 108(3), pp. 1236–1245. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bolanowski, S. J. , and Zwislocki, J. J. , 1984, “ Intensity and Frequency Characteristics of Pacinian Corpuscles—I: Action Potentials,” J. Neurophysiol., 51(4), pp. 793–811. [PubMed]
Bolanowski, S. J. , and Zwislocki, J. J. , 1984, “ Intensity and Frequency Characteristics of Pacinian Corpuscles—II: Receptor Potentials,” J. Neurophysiol., 51(4), pp. 812–830. [PubMed]
Bell, J. , Bolanowski, S. , and Holmes, M. H. , 1994, “ The Structure and Function of Pacinian Corpuscles: A Review,” Prog. Neurobiol., 42(1), pp. 79–128. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Brisben, A. J. , Hsiao, S. S. , and Johnson, K. O. , 1999, “ Detection of Vibration Transmitted Through an Object Grasped in the Hand,” J. Neurophysiol., 81(4), pp. 1548–1558. [PubMed]
Johansson, R. , 1978, “ Tactile Sensibility in the Human Hand: Receptive Field Characteristics of Mechanoreceptive Units in the Glabrous Skin Area,” J. Physiol., 281(1), pp. 101–123. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Stark, B. , Carlstedt, T. , Hallin, R. , and Risling, M. , 1998, “ Distribution of Human Pacinian Corpuscles in the Hand: A Cadaver Study,” J. Hand Surg., 23(3), pp. 370–372. [CrossRef]
Halata, Z. , 1977, “ The Ultrastructure of the Sensory Nerve Endings in the Articular Capsule of the Knee Joint of the Domestic Cat (Ruffini Corpuscles and Pacinian Corpuscles),” J. Anat., 124(Pt 3), pp. 717–729. [PubMed]
Zimny, M. L. , and Wink, C. S. , 1991, “ Neuroreceptors in the Tissues of the Knee Joint,” J. Electromyography Kinesiology, 1(3), pp. 148–157. [CrossRef]
Kallakuri, S. , Li, Y. , Chen, C. , and Cavanaugh, J. M. , 2012, “ Innervation of Cervical Ventral Facet Joint Capsule: Histological Evidence,” World J. Orthop., 3(2), pp. 10–14. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Schutte, M. , Dabezies, E. , Zimny, M. , and Happel, L. , 1987, “ Neural Anatomy of the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., 69(2), pp. 243–247. [CrossRef]
Bowden, R. E. M. , 1960, “ Innervation of Skeletal Muscle,” Br. Med. J., 1(5174), pp. 671–674. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kumamoto, K. , Takei, M. , Kinoshita, M. , Ebara, S. , and Matsuura, T. , 1993, “ Distribution of Pacinian Corpuscles in the Cat Forefoot,” J. Anat., 182(Pt. 1), pp. 23–28. [PubMed]
Kumamoto, K. , Senuma, H. , Ebara, S. , and Matsuura, T. , 1993, “ Distribution of Pacinian Corpuscles in the Hand of the Monkey, Macaca Fuscata,” J. Anat., 183(Pt. 1), pp. 149–154. [PubMed]
Pease, D. , and Quilliam, T. , 1957, “ Electron Microscopy of the Pacinian Corpuscle,” J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol., 3(3), pp. 331–342. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Shehata, R. , 1970, “ Pacinian Corpuscles in the Bladder Wall and Outside Ureter of the Cat,” Acta Anat., 77(1), pp. 139–143. [CrossRef]
Shehata, R. , 1972, “ Pacinian Corpuscles in Pelvic Urogenital Organsa and Outside Abdominal Lymph Glands of the Cat,” Acta Anat., 83(1), pp. 127–138. [CrossRef]
García, F. C. , Acosta, D. R. , Manuel, J. , González, D. , and Lima, M. S. , 2015, “ Hyperplasia and Hypertrophy of Pacinian Corpuscles: A Case Report,” Am. J. Dermatopathol., 37(8), pp. e100–e101. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cauna, N. , and Mannan, G. , 1958, “ The Structure of Human Digital Pacinian Corpuscles (Corpuscula Lamellosa) and Its Functional Significance,” J. Anat., 92(1), pp. 1–20.4. [PubMed]
Quilliam, T. , and Sato, M. , 1954, “ The Distribution of Myelin on Nerve Fibers From Pacinian Corpuscles,” J. Physiol., 129(1), pp. 167–176. [CrossRef]
Gray, J. A. B. , and Ritchie, M. , 1953, “ Effects of Stretch on Single Myelinated Nerve Fibres,” J. Physiol., 124(1), pp. 84–99. [CrossRef]
Quindlen, J. C. , Lai, V. K. , and Barocas, V. H. , 2015, “ Multiscale Mechanical Model of the Pacinian Corpuscle Shows Depth and Anisotropy Contribute to the Receptor's Characteristic Response to Indentation,” PLoS Comput. Biol., 11(9), p. e1004370. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Loewenstein, W. , and Skalak, R. , 1966, “ Mechanical Transmission in a Pacinian Corpuscle. An Analysis and a Theory,” J. Physiol., 182(2), pp. 346–378. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Holmes, M. H. , and Bell, J. , 1990, “ A Model of a Sensory Mechanoreceptor Derived From Homogenization,” SIAM J. Appl. Math., 50(1), pp. 147–166. [CrossRef]
Bell, J. , and Holmes, M. , 1992, “ Model of the Dynamics of Receptor Potential in a Mechanoreceptor,” Math. Biosci., 110(2), pp. 139–174. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Biswas, A. , Manivannan, M. , and Srinivasan, M. A. , 2015, “ Multiscale Layered Biomechanical Model of the Pacinian Corpuscle,” IEEE Trans. Haptics, 8(1), pp. 31–42. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Biswas, A. , and Manivannan, M. , 2014, “ Nonlinear Two Stage Mechanotransduction Model and Neural Response of Pacinian Corpuscle,” Annual Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biomedical Science and Engineering Center Conference (BSEC), Oak Ridge, TN, May 6–8, pp. 1–4.
Biswas, A. , Manivannan, M. , and Srinivasan, M. , 2013, “ A Biomechanical Model of Pacinian Corpuscle and Skin,” Annual Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biomedical Science and Engineering Conference (BSEC), Oak Ridge, TN, May 21–23, pp. 1–4.
Quindlen, J. C. , Stolarski, H. K. , Johnson, M. D. , and Barocas, V. H. , 2016, “ A Multiphysics Model of the Pacinian Corpuscle,” Integr. Biol., 8(11), pp. 1111–1125. [CrossRef]
Güçlü, B. , Schepis, E. A. , Yelke, S. , Yucesoy, C. A. , and Bolanowski, S. J. , 2006, “ Ovoid Geometry of the Pacinian Corpuscle is Not the Determining Factor For Mechanical Excitation,” Somatosens. Mot. Res., 23(3/4), pp. 119–126. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zelená, J. , 1978, “ The Development of Pacinian Corpuscles,” J. Neurocytol., 7(1), pp. 71–91. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Loewenstein, W. , 1956, “ Excitation and Changes in Adaptation By Stretch of Mechanoreceptors,” J. Physiol., 133(3), pp. 588–602. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wilkinson, J. , 1965, “ Natural Frequencies of Closed Spherical Shells,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 38(2), p. 367. [CrossRef]
Yankner, B. A. , Lu, T. , and Loerch, P. , 2008, “ The Aging Brain,” Annu. Rev. Pathol., 3(1), pp. 41–66. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Verdú, E. , Ceballos, D. , Vilches, J. J. , and Navarro, X. , 2000, “ Influence of Aging on Peripheral Nerve Function and Regeneration,” J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst., 5(4), pp. 191–208. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cauna, N. , 1965, “ The Effects of Aging on the Receptor Organs of the Human Dermis,” Adv. Biol. Skin, 6, pp. 63–96.
Verrillo, R. T. , 1980, “ Age Related Changes in the Sensitivity to Vibration,” J. Gerontol., 35(2), pp. 185–193. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wells, C. , Ward, L. M. , Chua, R. , and Inglis, J. T. , 2003, “ Regional Variation and Changes With Aging in Vibrotactile Sensitivity in the Human Footsole,” J. Gerontol., A, 58(8), pp. B680–B686. [CrossRef]
Deshpande, N. , Metter, E. J. , Ling, S. , Conwit, R. , and Ferrucci, L. , 2008, “ Physiological Correlates of Age-Related Decline in Vibrotactile Sensitivity,” Neurobiol. Aging, 29(5), pp. 765–773. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Era, P. , Jokela, J. , Suominen, H. , and Heikkinen, E. , 1986, “ Correlates of Vibrotactile Thresholds in Men of Different Ages,” Acta Neurol. Scand., 74(3), pp. 210–217. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Whanger, A. D. , and Wang, H. S. , 1974, “ Clinical Correlates of the Vibratory Sense in Elderly Psychiatric Patients,” J. Gerontol., 29(1), pp. 39–45. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Vinik, A. I. , Nevoret, M.-L. , Casellini, C. , and Parson, H. , 2013, “ Diabetic Neuropathy,” Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am., 42(4), pp. 747–787. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Shun, C. T. , Chang, Y. C. , Wu, H. P. , Hsieh, S. C. , Lin, W. M. , Lin, Y. H. , Tai, T. Y. , and Hsieh, S. T. , 2004, “ Skin Denervation in Type 2 Diabetes: Correlations With Diabetic Duration and Functional Impairments,” Brain, 127(7), pp. 1593–1605. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Alsunousi, S. , and Marrif, H. I. , 2014, “ Diabetic Neuropathy and the Sensory Apparatus ‘Meissner Corpuscle and Merkel Cells’,” Front. Neuroanat., 8, p. 79. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Paré, M. , Albrecht, P. J. , Noto, C. J. , Bodkin, N. L. , Pittenger, G. L. , Schreyer, D. J. , Tigno, X. T. , Hansen, B. C. , and Rice, F. L. , 2007, “ Differential Hypertrophy and Atrophy Among All Types of Cutaneous Innervation in the Glabrous Skin of the Monkey Hand During Aging and Naturally Occurring Type 2 Diabetes,” J. Comp. Neurol., 501(4), pp. 543–567. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gregersen, G. , 1968, “ Vibratory Perception Threshold and Motor Conduction Velocity in Diabetics and Non-Diabetics,” Acta Med. Scand., 183(1–6), pp. 61–65. [PubMed]
Goh, S.-Y. , and Cooper, M. E. , 2008, “ The Role of Advanced Glycation End Products in Progression and Complications of Diabetes,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 93(4), pp. 1143–1152. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sims, T. J. , Rasmussen, L. M. , Oxlund, H. , and Bailey, A. J. , 1996, “ The Role of Glycation Cross-Links in Diabetic Vascular Stiffening,” Diabetologia, 39(8), pp. 946–951. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Aronson, D. , 2003, “ Cross-Linking of Glycated Collagen in the Pathogenesis of Arterial and Myocardial Stiffening of Aging and Diabetes,” J. Hypertens., 21(1), pp. 3–12. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pallie, W. , Nishi, K. , and Oura, C. , 1970, “ The Pacinian Corpuscle, Its Vascular Supply and the Inner Core,” Acta Anat., 77(4), pp. 508–520. [CrossRef]
Verzijl, N. , DeGroot, J. , Zaken, C. B. , Braun-Benjamin, O. , Bank, R. A. , Mizrahi, J. , Schalkwijk, C. G. , Thorpe, S. R. , Baynes, J. W. , Bijlsma, J. W. , Lafeber, F. P. J. G. , and Tekoppele, J. M. , 2002, “ Crosslinking by Advanced Glycation End Products Increases the Stiffness of the Collagen Network in Human Articular Cartilage,” Arthritis Rheum., 46(1), pp. 114–123. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Reddy, G. K. , Stehno-Bittel, L. , and Enwemeka, C. S. , 2002, “ Glycation-Induced Matrix Stability in the Rabbit Achilles Tendon,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 399(2), pp. 174–180. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Klaesner, J. W. , Hastings, M. K. , Zou, D. , Lewis, C. , and Mueller, M. J. , 2002, “ Plantar Tissue Stiffness in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus and Peripheral Neuropathy,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 83(12), pp. 1796–1801. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zelená, J. , 1980, “ Rapid Degeneration of Developing Rat Pacinian Corpuscles After Denervation,” Brain Res., 187(1), pp. 97–111. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zelená, J. , 1982, “ Survival of Pacinian Corpuscles After Denervation in Adult Rats,” Cell Tissue Res., 224(3), pp. 673–683. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zelená, J. , 1981, “ Multiple Innervation of Rat Pacinian Corpuscles Regenerated After Neonatal Axotomy,” Neuroscience, 6(8), pp. 1675–1686. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zelená, J. , 1984, “ Multiple Axon Terminals in Reinnervated Pacinian Corpuscles of Adult Rat,” J. Neurocytol., 13(5), pp. 665–684. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hubbard, S. J. , 1958, “ A Study of Rapid Mechanical Events in a Mechanoreceptor,” J. Physiol., 141(2), pp. 198–218. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sato, M. , 1961, “ Response of Pacinian Corpuscles to Sinusoidal Vibration,” J. Physiol., 159(3), pp. 391–409. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Loewenstein, W. , and Mendelson, M. , 1965, “ Components of Receptor Adaptation in a Pacinian Corpuscle,” J. Physiol., 177(3), pp. 377–397. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bolanowski, S. J. , Jr., 1984, “ Intensity and Frequency Characteristics of Pacinian Corpuscles—III: Effects of Tetrodotoxin on Transduction Process,” J. Neurophysiol., 51(4), pp. 831–839. [PubMed]
Gray, J. , and Matthews, P. , 1951, “ A Comparison of the Adaptation of the Pacinian Corpuscle With the Accommodation of Its Own Axon,” J. Physiol., 114(4), pp. 454–464. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pawson, L. , Prestia, L. T. , Mahoney, G. K. , Güçlü, B. , Cox, P. J. , and Pack, A. K. , 2009, “ GABAergic/Glutamatergic-Glial/Neuronal Interaction Contributes to Rapid Adaptation in Pacinian Corpuscles,” J. Neurosci., 29(9), pp. 2695–2705. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bouley, D. M. , Alarcón, C. N. , Hildebrandt, T. , and O'Connell-Rodwell, C. E. , 2007, “ The Distribution, Density and Three-Dimensional Histomorphology of Pacinian Corpuscles in the Foot of the Asian Elephant (Elephas Maximus) and Their Potential Role in Seismic Communication,” J. Anat., 211(4), pp. 428–435. [PubMed]
Owaki, M. , Oono, H. , Nakajima, N. , Ohta, G. , Okano, S. , Kakizaki, T. , and Yoshioka, K. , 2014, “ Morphology and Distribution of Lamellar Corpuscles in the Mesentery of the Cat,” Anat. Histol. Embryol., 43(5), pp. 375–378. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Histological and model PCs. (a) Image of a single PC in a thick human skin slice. Image obtained from thick human skin after H&E staining and provided by Dr. Christopher Honda from the University of Minnesota. The PC was sectioned perpendicular to the long axis of the receptor. Lamellae can be seen as concentric lines in the cross section. (b) Representation of the PC outer core in the multilayer (Stage 1) model. The thick, solid lines represent lamellae and the shaded regions between lines represent the interlamellar fluid. The shaded pink area in the lower left corner represents the inner core (modeled in Stage 2).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Ratio of inner to outer shell strain at various lamellar moduli. The ratio is plotted for simulations run with lamellar moduli of 100 Pa (left), 1 kPa (center), and 10 kPa (right). Each modulus was run for PCs with 2–30 shells, with increasing shell number indicated by the arrows.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Peak frequency and bandwidth for various ratios of lamellar modulus to fluid viscosity (E/μ). (a) The peak frequency was the frequency at which the highest ratio of inner to outer shell strain occurred, which is the frequency of peak strain amplification. The bandwidth was the frequency range over which the ratio of inner to outer shell strain was greater than 1 (dashed line), indicating strain amplification through the PC capsule. (b) The peak frequency was calculated for different values of E/μ. The peak frequency at E/μ is plotted for 12–30 shells, with increasing shell number indicated by the arrow and shading. (c) The bandwidth was calculated for different values of E/μ, with increasing shell number indicated by the arrow and shading.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Peak frequency plotted for various average lamellar thicknesses (h) and radii (Ro). (a) The peak frequency was calculated for simulations run at different values of h with 12–30 shells. The square and circle icons represent where the PCs shown in (c) and (d) would fall on this graph. Increasing shell number is indicated by the arrow and shading. (b) The peak frequency was calculated for simulations run at various Ro. (c) 12 shell PC run at parameters indicated by the filled square in (a). Black indicates solid lamellae, white indicates fluid-filled spaces, and grey indicates the inner core. (d) 20 shell PC run at parameters indicated by the filled circle in (a).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Peak frequency and bandwidth vs. h/Ro. (a) Peak frequency calculated for various values of h/Ro at 12–30 shells with increasing shell number indicated by the arrow and hotter color. (b) Bandwidth calculated for various values of h/Ro at 12–30 shells with increasing shell number indicated by the arrow and shading.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Peak frequency and bandwidth vs. Eh/μRo. (a) Peak frequency calculated from simulations run at various values of Eh/μRo for 12–30 shells, with increasing shell number indicated by the arrow and shading. (b) Bandwidth calculated from simulations run at various values of Eh/μRo, with increasing shell number indicated by the arrow and shading.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Relationship between the five structural parameters (E, h, μ, Ro, N) and the peak frequency (ω) and bandwidth (B). (a) The value ωμRo/Eh was plotted against the number of shells (N) in a log-log plot for all data points from the simulations. A power-law fit gave an exponent of 3.475, with the best-fit line plotted as a solid red line through the data points. A zoomed-in view of individual data points is shown. Each simulation is marked with a horizontal line in the zoomed-in view. (b) Comparison between the peak frequency measured in all computer simulations and the calculated value N3.475 × Eh/μRo using the parameters input into the simulations. A zoomed-in view of individual data points is shown. Each simulation is marked with a vertical line in the zoomed-in view. (c) The value BμRo/Eh was plotted against N in a log-log plot for all data points from the simulations. A power-law fit gave an exponent of 3.591, with the best-fit line plotted as a solid red line through the data points. (d) Comparison between the bandwidth measured in all computer simulations and the calculated value N3.591 × Eh/μRo using the parameters input into the simulations.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In