Design Innovation Paper

Development of standardized material testing protocols for prosthetic liners

[+] Author and Article Information
John C Cagle

Dept of Bioengineering, University of Washington 3720 15th Ave NE, Box 355061, Seattle, WA 98195

Per G. Reinhall

Dept of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington Stevens Way, Box 352600, Seattle, WA 98195

Brian J Hafner

Dept of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington 1959 NE Pacific St, Box 356490, Seattle, WA 98195

Joan E Sanders

Dept of Bioengineering, University of Washington 3720 15th Ave NE, Box 355061, Seattle, WA 98195

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4035917 History: Received September 06, 2016; Revised January 06, 2017


A set of protocols was created to characterize prosthetic liners across six clinically relevant material properties. Properties included compressive elasticity, shear elasticity, tensile elasticity, volumetric elasticity, coefficient of friction, and thermal conductivity. Eighteen prosthetic liners representing the diverse range of commercial products were evaluated to create test procedures that maximized repeatability, minimized error, and provided clinically meaningful results. Shear and tensile elasticity test designs were augmented with finite element analysis to optimize specimen geometries. Results showed that because of the wide range of available liner products, the compressive elasticity and tensile elasticity tests required two test maxima; samples were tested until they met either a strain-based or a stress-based maximum, whichever was reached first. The shear and tensile elasticity tests required that no cyclic conditioning be conducted because of limited endurance of the mounting adhesive with some liner materials. The coefficient of friction test was based on dynamic coefficient of friction, as it proved to be a more reliable measurement than static coefficient of friction. The volumetric elasticity test required that air be released beneath samples in the test chamber before testing. The thermal conductivity test best reflected the clinical environment when thermal grease was omitted and when liner samples were placed under pressure consistent with load bearing conditions. The developed procedures provide a standardized approach for evaluating liner products in the prosthetics industry. Test results can be used to improve clinical selection of liners for individual patients and guide development of new liner products.

Copyright (c) 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.






Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In