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Research Papers

A Macroscopic Model for Simulating the Mucociliary Clearance in a Bronchial Bifurcation: The Role of Surface Tension

[+] Author and Article Information
Michail Manolidis

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109;
Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée,
Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS,
Université Paris-Saclay,
Palaiseau Cedex 91128, France
e-mail: mihalis@umich.edu

Daniel Isabey

Professor
Inserm, U955 (Equipe13) and CNRS ERL 7240,
Cell and Respiratory Biomechanics,
Université Paris Est,
Créteil 94010, France
e-mail: daniel.isabey@inserm.fr

Bruno Louis

Inserm, U955 (Equipe13) and CNRS ERL 7240,
Cell and Respiratory Biomechanics,
Université Paris Est,
Créteil 94010, France
e-mail: bruno.louis@inserm.fr

James B. Grotberg

Professor
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: grotberg@umich.edu

Marcel Filoche

Professor
Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée,
Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS,
Université Paris-Saclay,
Palaiseau Cedex 91128, France;
Inserm, U955 (Equipe13) and CNRS ERL 7240,
Cell and Respiratory Biomechanics,
Université Paris Est,
Créteil 94010, France
e-ail: marcel.filoche@polytechnique.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 18, 2015; final manuscript received August 9, 2016; published online November 3, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Naomi Chesler.

J Biomech Eng 138(12), 121005 (Nov 03, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: BIO-15-1655; doi: 10.1115/1.4034507 History: Received December 18, 2015; Revised August 09, 2016

The mucociliary clearance in the bronchial tree is the main mechanism by which the lungs clear themselves of deposited particulate matter. In this work, a macroscopic model of the clearance mechanism is proposed. Lubrication theory is applied for thin films with both surface tension effects and a moving wall boundary. The flow field is computed by the use of a finite-volume scheme on an unstructured grid that replicates a bronchial bifurcation. The carina in bronchial bifurcations is of special interest because it is a location of increased deposition of inhaled particles. In this study, the mucus flow is computed for different values of the surface tension. It is found that a minimal surface tension is necessary for efficiently removing the mucus while maintaining the mucus film thickness at physiological levels.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Geometry of 3D two-layered flow on a flat plate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Construction of a CAD model of a symmetric bifurcation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Assigned wall velocity field showing the ridge region. Note: The vectors all have the same magnitude corresponding to a speed of 40 μm/s.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Streamlines of the prescribed wall velocity field at the ridge. The zoomed region is a rectangle following the bifurcation wall, centered across the ridge, of curvilinear length and with 6 mm and 4 mm, respectively. The carina is the center of the rectangle.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Contour plot of the pressure along the ridge (the rectangle area is identical to the one delimited in Fig. 4). The sharp drop over small distances signals a strong pressure gradient (Ca = 10−4).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Streamlines of the mucus flow field at the ridge region for four different capillary numbers (the rectangle area is identical to the one delimited in Fig. 4).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Contour plots of flow velocity magnitude in the ridge region (the rectangle area is identical to the one defined in Fig.4).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Three-dimensional representation of the mucus thickness in the entire bifurcation, for Ca = 8 × 10−4. One can observe that the thickness stabilizes to a constant value far from the bifurcations, in all three branches.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Contour plots comparing film thickness at the ridge region for four different capillary numbers (the rectangle area is identical to the one defined in Fig. 4

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