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Technical Brief

On the Biaxial Mechanical Response of Porcine Tricuspid Valve Leaflets

[+] Author and Article Information
Keyvan Amini Khoiy

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
The University of Akron,
Olson Research Center, Room 322/3,
260 South Forge Street,
Akron, OH 44325
e-mail: ka67@zips.uakron.edu

Rouzbeh Amini

Mem. ASME
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
The University of Akron,
Olson Research Center, Room 301F,
260 South Forge Street,
Akron, OH 44325
e-mail: ramini@uakron.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 4, 2015; final manuscript received August 1, 2016; published online August 24, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Jonathan Vande Geest.

J Biomech Eng 138(10), 104504 (Aug 24, 2016) (6 pages) Paper No: BIO-15-1625; doi: 10.1115/1.4034426 History: Received December 04, 2015; Revised August 01, 2016

Located on the right side of the heart, the tricuspid valve (TV) prevents blood backflow from the right ventricle to the right atrium. Similar to other cardiac valves, quantification of TV biaxial mechanical properties is essential in developing accurate computational models. In the current study, for the first time, the biaxial stress–strain behavior of porcine TV was measured ex vivo under different loading protocols using biaxial tensile testing equipment. The results showed a highly nonlinear response including a compliant region followed by a rapid transition to a stiff region for all of the TV leaflets both in the circumferential and in the radial directions. Based on the data analysis, all three leaflets were found to be anisotropic, and they were stiffer in the circumferential direction in comparison to the radial direction. It was also concluded that the posterior leaflet was the most anisotropic leaflet.

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Figures

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Fig. 3

The three leaflets of the tricuspid valve and the position and shape of the specimens

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Fig. 1

Custom-made biaxial tensile testing equipment

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Fig. 4

The average membrane tension versus stretch ratio for the loading protocols: (a) number 1 (equibiaxial), (b) number 2, (c) number 3, (d) number 4, and (e) number 5 for the anterior leaflet. The circumferential (Circ) and radial directions are in solid and dashed-dotted, respectively. The bars are standard errors. The horizontal dashed line shows the maximum physiological tension level (Max Physio), while the tension level goes up to 100 N/m in case of hypertension.

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Fig. 5

The average membrane tension versus stretch ratio for the loading protocols: (a) number 1 (equibiaxial), (b) number 2, (c) number 3, (d) number 4, and (e) number 5 for the posterior leaflet. The circumferential (Circ) and radial directions are in solid and dashed-dotted, respectively. The bars are standard errors. The horizontal dashed line shows the maximum physiological tension level (Max Physio), while the tension level goes up to 100 N/m in case of hypertension.

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Fig. 6

The average membrane tension versus stretch ratio for the loading protocols: (a) number 1 (equibiaxial), (b) number 2, (c) number 3, (d) number 4, and (e) number 5 for the septal leaflet. The circumferential (Circ) and radial directions are in solid and dashed-dotted, respectively. The bars are standard errors. The horizontal dashed line shows the maximum physiological tension level (Max Physio), while the tension level goes up to 100 N/m in case of hypertension.

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Fig. 2

(a) Specially designed phantom to facilitate the attachment of the leaflets to the biaxial tensile testing equipment. (b) Specimen attached to the equipment using fishhooks and suture lines.

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