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Research Papers

Biomechanical Behaviors in Three Types of Spinal Cord Injury Mechanisms

[+] Author and Article Information
Batbayar Khuyagbaatar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Kyung Hee University,
1 Seocheon-dong,
Giheung-gu,
Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701, Korea
e-mail: bayaraa_3d@yahoo.com

Kyungsoo Kim

Department of Applied Mathematics,
Kyung Hee University,
1 Seocheon-dong,
Giheung-gu,
Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701, Korea
e-mail: kyungsoo@khu.ac.kr

Won Man Park

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Kyung Hee University,
1 Seocheon-dong,
Giheung-gu,
Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701, Korea
e-mail: muhaguy@hanmail.net

Yoon Hyuk Kim

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Kyung Hee University,
1 Seocheon-dong,
Giheung-gu,
Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701, Korea
e-mail: yoonhkim@khu.ac.kr

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 3, 2015; final manuscript received June 1, 2016; published online June 22, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Brian D. Stemper.

J Biomech Eng 138(8), 081003 (Jun 22, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: BIO-15-1385; doi: 10.1115/1.4033794 History: Received August 03, 2015; Revised June 01, 2016

Clinically, spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are radiographically evaluated and diagnosed from plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging. However, it is difficult to conclude that radiographic evaluation of SCI can directly explain the fundamental mechanism of spinal cord damage. The von-Mises stress and maximum principal strain are directly associated with neurological damage in the spinal cord from a biomechanical viewpoint. In this study, the von-Mises stress and maximum principal strain in the spinal cord as well as the cord cross-sectional area (CSA) were analyzed under various magnitudes for contusion, dislocation, and distraction SCI mechanisms, using a finite-element (FE) model of the cervical spine with spinal cord including white matter, gray matter, dura mater with nerve roots, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A regression analysis was performed to find correlation between peak von-Mises stress/peak maximum principal strain at the cross section of the highest reduction in CSA and corresponding reduction in CSA of the cord. Dislocation and contusion showed greater peak stress and strain values in the cord than distraction. The substantial increases in von-Mises stress as well as CSA reduction similar to or more than 30% were produced at a 60% contusion and a 60% dislocation, while the maximum principal strain was gradually increased as injury severity elevated. In addition, the CSA reduction had a strong correlation with peak von-Mises stress/peak maximum principal strain for the three injury mechanisms, which might be fundamental information in elucidating the relationship between radiographic and mechanical parameters related to SCI.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The FE model of the cervical spine with the spinal cord: (a) axial view (b) and sagittal view. The cervical spine components, including vertebrae and intervertebral disks, were modeled as rigid bodies.

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Fig. 2

FE models for (a) contusion injury, (b) dislocation injury, and (c) distraction injury

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Fig. 3

(a) Comparison of maximum percentage compression of the whole spinal cord and the cord within the dural sheath for our FE results and previous experimental studies [32,33] and (b) comparison of time to maximum compression of the whole spinal cord between our FE results and a previous experimental study [33]. Thepellets have same mass and different impact areas (pellet 1: 314 mm2; pellet 2: 157 mm2; and pellet 3:78.5mm2).

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Fig. 4

(a) von-Mises stress in the cord for a 60% spinal canal reduction in contusion, a 60% anterior displacement in dislocation, and a 15 mm inferior displacement in distraction; (b) maximum principal strain in the cord for a 60% of spinal canal reduction in contusion, a 60% anterior displacement in dislocation, and a 15 mm inferior displacement in distraction. The “A” arrow indicates the anterior direction, while the “P” arrow indicates the posterior direction.

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Fig. 5

(a) Maximum stress in the cord, (b) maximum principal strain in the cord, and (c) reduction in the cord CSA for each injury mechanisms

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Fig. 6

Scatterplots of stress and strain versus reduction in CSA in all injury mechanisms

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