Research Papers

A Direct Method for Mapping the Center of Pressure Measured by an Insole Pressure Sensor System to the Shoe's Local Coordinate System

[+] Author and Article Information
Brian T. Weaver

Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratories,
Michigan State University,
A407 East Fee Hall,
East Lansing, MI 48824;
Explico Engineering Co.,
40028 Grand River Avenue,
Suite 300,
Novi, MI 48375,
e-mail: Brian@explico.com

Jerrod E. Braman

Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratories, Michigan State University,
A407 East Fee Hall,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: Bramanj1@msu.edu

Roger C. Haut

Fellow ASME
Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratories,
Michigan State University,
A407 East Fee Hall,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: Roger@msu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 9, 2015; final manuscript received April 11, 2016; published online May 5, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Kristen Billiar.

J Biomech Eng 138(6), 061007 (May 05, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: BIO-15-1444; doi: 10.1115/1.4033476 History: Received September 09, 2015; Revised April 11, 2016

A direct method to express the center of pressure (CoP) measured by an insole pressure sensor system (IPSS) into a known coordinate system measured by motion tracking equipment is presented. A custom probe was constructed with reflective markers to allow its tip to be precisely tracked with motion tracking equipment. This probe was utilized to activate individual sensors on an IPSS that was placed in a shoe fitted with reflective markers used to establish a local shoe coordinate system. When pressed onto the IPSS the location of the probe's tip was coincident with the CoP measured by the IPSS (IPSS-CoP). Two separate pushes (i.e., data points) were used to develop vectors in each respective coordinate system. Simple vector mathematics determined the rotational and translational components of the transformation matrix needed to express the IPSS-CoP into the local shoe coordinate system. Validation was performed by comparing IPSS-CoP with an embedded force plate measured CoP (FP-CoP) from data gathered during kinematic trials. Six male subjects stood on an embedded FP and performed anterior/posterior (AP) sway, internal rotation, and external rotation of the body relative to a firmly planted foot. The IPSS-CoP was highly correlated with the FP-CoP for all motions, root mean square errors (RMSRRs) were comparable to other research, and there were no statistical differences between the displacement of the IPSS-CoP and FP-CoP for both the AP and medial/lateral (ML) axes, respectively. The results demonstrated that this methodology could be utilized to determine the transformation variables need to express IPSS-CoP into a known coordinate system measured by motion tracking equipment and that these variables can be determined outside the laboratory anywhere motion tracking equipment is available.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Wu, G. , and Chiang, J.-H. , 1996, “ The Effects of Surface Compliance on Foot Pressure in Stance,” Gait Posture, 4(2), pp. 122–129. [CrossRef]
Savelberg, H. H. C. M. , Lange, D. , and A. L. H. , 1999, “ Assessment of the Horizontal, Fore-Aft Component of the Ground Reaction Force From Insole Pressure Patterns by Using Artificial Neural Networks,” Clin. Biomech., 14(8), pp. 585–592. [CrossRef]
Barnett, S. , Cunningham, J. L. , and West, S. , 2001, “ A Comparison of Vertical Force and Temporal Parameters Produced by an In-Shoe Pressure Measuring System and a Force Platform,” Clin. Biomech., 16(4), pp. 353–357. [CrossRef]
Eils, E. , Streyl, M. , Linnenbecker, S. , Thorwesten, L. , Volker, K. , and Rosenbaum, D. , 2004, “ Characteristic Plantar Pressure Distribution Patterns During Soccer-Specific Movements,” Am. J. Sports Med., 32(1), pp. 140–145. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Forner-Cordero, A. , Koopman, H. J. , and van der Helm, F. C. , 2004, “ Use of Pressure Insoles to Calculate the Complete Ground Reaction Forces,” J. Biomech., 37(9), pp. 1427–1432. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ford, K. R. , Manson, N. A. , Evans, B. J. , Myer, G. D. , Gwin, R. C. , Heidt, R. S., Jr. , and Hewett, T. E. , 2006, “ Comparison of In-Shoe Foot Loading Patterns on Natural Grass and Synthetic Turf,” J. Sci. Med. Sport/Sports Med. Aust., 9(6), pp. 433–440. [CrossRef]
Girard, O. , Eicher, F. , Fourchet, F. , Micallef, J. P. , and Millet, G. P. , 2007, “ Effects of the Playing Surface on Plantar Pressures and Potential Injuries in Tennis,” Br. J. Sports Med., 41(11), pp. 733–738. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fong, D. T. , Chan, Y. Y. , Hong, Y. , Yung, P. S. , Fung, K. Y. , and Chan, K. M. , 2008, “ Estimating the Complete Ground Reaction Forces With Pressure Insoles in Walking,” J. Biomech., 41(11), pp. 2597–2601. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tessutti, V. , Trombini-Souza, F. , Ribeiro, A. P. , Nunes, A. L. , and Sacco Ide, C. , 2010, “ In-Shoe Plantar Pressure Distribution During Running on Natural Grass and Asphalt in Recreational Runners,” J. Sci. Med. Sport/Sports Med. Aust., 13(1), pp. 151–155. [CrossRef]
Nakazato, K. , Scheiber, P. , and Muller, E. , 2011, “ A Comparison of Ground Reaction Forces Determined by Portable Force-Plate and Pressure-Insole Systems in Alpine Skiing,” J. Sports Sci. Med., 10(4), pp. 754–762. [PubMed]
Weaver, B. T. , Fitzsimons, K. A. , Braman, J. E. , and Haut, R. C. , 2013, “ Torque Prediction at the Shoe-Surface Interface Using Insole Pressure Technology,” Sports Eng. Technol., 227(4), pp. 219–225.
Dobson, J. A. , Riddiford-Harland, D. L. , and Steele, J. R. , 2015, “ Effects of Wearing Gumboots and Leather Lace-Up Boots on Lower Limb Muscle Activity When Walking on Simulated Underground Coal Mine Surfaces,” Appl. Ergon., 49, pp. 34–40. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Queen, R. M. , Charnock, B. L. , Garrett, W. E. , Hardaker, W. M. , Sims, E. L. , and Moorman, C. T. , 2008, “ A Comparison of Cleat Types During Two Football-Specific Tasks on FieldTurf,” Br. J. Sports Med., 42(4), pp. 278–284. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Orendurff, M. S. , Rohr, E. S. , Segal, A. D. , Medley, J. W. , Green, J. R., III , and Kadel, N. J. , 2008, “ Regional Foot Pressure During Running, Cutting, Jumping, and Landing,” Am. J. Sports Med., 36(3), pp. 566–571. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Queen, R. M. , Abbey, A. N. , Wiegerinck, J. I. , Yoder, J. C. , and Nunley, J. A. , 2010, “ Effect of Shoe Type on Plantar Pressure:A Gender Comparison,” Gait Posture, 31(1), pp. 18–22. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Torg, J. S. , and Quedenfeld, T. , 1971, “ Effect of Shoe Type and Cleat Length on Incidence and Severity of Knee Injuries Among High School Football Players,” Res. Q., 42(2), pp. 203–211. [PubMed]
Torg, J. S. , Quedenfeld, T. C. , and Landau, S. , 1974, “ The Shoe-Surface Interface and Its Relationship to Football Knee Injuries,” J. Sports Med., 2(5), pp. 261–269. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lambson, R. B. , Barnhill, B. S. , and Higgins, R. W. , 1996, “ Football Cleat Design and Its Effect on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries. A Three-Year Prospective Study,” Am. J. Sports Med., 24(2), pp. 155–159. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wei, F. , Villwock, M. R. , Meyer, E. G. , Powell, J. W. , and Haut, R. C. , 2010, “ A Biomechanical Investigation of Ankle Injury Under Excessive External Foot Rotation in the Human Cadaver,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 132(9), p. 091001. [CrossRef]
Hershman, E. B. , Anderson, R. , Bergfeld, J. A. , Bradley, J. P. , Coughlin, M. J. , Johnson, R. J. , Spindler, K. P. , Wojtys, E. , and Powell, J. W. , 2012, “ An Analysis of Specific Lower Extremity Injury Rates on Grass and FieldTurf Playing Surfaces in National Football League Games: 2000-2009 Seasons,” Am. J. Sports Med., 40(10), pp. 2200–2205. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Dowling, A. V. , and Andriacchi, T. P. , 2012, “ Role of Shoe-Surface Interaction and Noncontact ACL Injuries,” ACL Injuries in the Female Athlete. Causes, Impacts, and Conditioning Programs, F. R. Noyes , and S. D. Barber-Westin , eds., Springer, New York, pp. 85–108.
Dragoo, J. L. , Braun, H. J. , and Harris, A. H. , 2013, “ The Effect of Playing Surface on the Incidence of ACL Injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association American Football,” Knee, 20(3), pp. 191–195. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hunt, K. J. , George, E. , Harris, A. H. , and Dragoo, J. L. , 2013, “ Epidemiology of Syndesmosis Injuries in Intercollegiate Football: Incidence and Risk Factors From National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System Data From 2004–2005 to 2008–2009,” Clin. J. Sport Med., 23(4), pp. 278–282. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Eng, J. J. , and Winter, D. A. , 1995, “ Kinetic Analysis of the Lower Limbs During Walking: What Information Can Be Gained From a Three-Dimensional Model?,” J. Biomech., 28(6), pp. 753–758. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Winter, D. A. , 2009, Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Chesnin, K. J. , Selby-Silverstein, L. , and Besser, M. P. , 2000, “ Comparison of an In-Shoe Pressure Measurement Device to a Force Plate: Concurrent Validity of Center of Pressure Measurements,” Gait Posture, 12(2), pp. 128–133. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fradet, L. , Siegel, J. , Dahl, M. , Alimusaj, M. , and Wolf, S. I. , 2009, “ Spatial Synchronization of an Insole Pressure Distribution System With a 3D Motion Analysis System for Center of Pressure Measurements,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., 47(1), pp. 85–92. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chumanov, E. S. , Remy, C. D. , and Thelen, D. G. , 2010, “ Computational Techniques for Using Insole Pressure Sensors to Analyse Three-Dimensional Joint Kinetics,” Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng., 13(5), pp. 505–514. [CrossRef]
Debbi, E. M. , Wolf, A. , Goryachev, Y. , Yizhar, Z. , Luger, E. , Debi, R. , and Haim, A. , 2012, “ In-Shoe Center of Pressure: Indirect Force Plate vs. Direct Insole Measurement,” Foot, 22(4), pp. 269–275. [CrossRef]
Meyer, E. G. , and Haut, R. C. , 2008, “ Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Induced by Internal Tibial Torsion or Tibiofemoral Compression,” J. Biomech., 41(16), pp. 3377–3383. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Guise, E. R. , 1976, “ Rotational Ligamentous Injuries to the Ankle in Football,” Am. J. Sports Med., 4(1), pp. 1–6. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Griffin, L. Y. , Agel, J. , Albohm, M. J. , Arendt, E. A. , Dick, R. W. , Garrett, W. E. , Garrick, J. G. , Hewett, T. E. , Huston, L. , Ireland, M. L. , Johnson, R. J. , Kibler, W. B. , Lephart, S. , Lewis, J. L. , Lindenfeld, T. N. , Mandelbaum, B. R. , Marchak, P. , Teitz, C. C. , and Wojtys, E. M. , 2000, “ Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies,” J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surgeons, 8(3), pp. 141–150. [CrossRef]
Button, K. D. , Braman, J. E. , Davison, M. A. , Wei, F. , Schaeffer, M. C. , and Haut, R. C. , 2015, “ Rotational Stiffness of American Football Shoes Affects Ankle Biomechanics and Injury Severity,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 137(6), p. 061004. [CrossRef]
Wei, F. , Meyer, E. G. , Braman, J. E. , Powell, J. W. , and Haut, R. C. , 2012, “ Rotational Stiffness of Football Shoes Influences Talus Motion During External Rotation of the Foot,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 134(4), p. 041002. [CrossRef]
Villwock, M. R. , Meyer, E. G. , Powell, J. W. , Fouty, A. J. , and Haut, R. C. , 2009, “ Football Playing Surface and Shoe Design Affect Rotational Traction,” Am. J. Sports Med., 37(3), pp. 518–525. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Smeets, K. , Jacobs, P. , Hertogs, R. , Luyckx, J. P. , Innocenti, B. , Corten, K. , Ekstrand, J. , and Bellemans, J. , 2012, “ Torsional Injuries of the Lower Limb: An Analysis of the Frictional Torque Between Different Types of Football Turf and the Shoe Outsole,” British J. Sports Med., 46(15), pp. 1078–1083. [CrossRef]
Livesay, G. A. , Reda, D. R. , and Nauman, E. A. , 2006, “ Peak Torque and Rotational Stiffness Developed at the Shoe-Surface Interface: The Effect of Shoe Type and Playing Surface,” Am. J. Sports Med., 34(3), pp. 415–422. [CrossRef] [PubMed]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Illustration of the marker placement on the right Nike shoe used to create the local shoe coordinate system with an origin at the height of the insole pressure measurement system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Illustration of the custom fabricated probe

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Illustration of the push tests to determine the location of discrete sensors in the local shoe coordinate system (tip of the probe) and the coordinate system of the IPSS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Illustration of two coordinate systems that have a translation (R) and an angle of rotation (θ) relative to one another

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Temporal plot CoP from subject 3 performing internal rotation of the body relative to the foot. (b) Temporal plot of CoP from subject 5 performing external rotation of the body relative to the foot. (c) Temporal plot of CoP from subject 2 performing AP Sway.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In