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Research Papers

Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Healthy and Defective Red Blood Cell Settling in Blood Plasma

[+] Author and Article Information
Z. Hashemi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman,
Kerman 76188-68366, Iran
e-mails: z.hashemi@eng.uk.ac.ir;
z.hashemi986@gmail.com

M. Rahnama

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman,
Kerman 76188-68366, Iran

S. Jafari

Department of Petroleum Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman,
Kerman 76188-68366, Iran

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 26, 2015; final manuscript received January 30, 2016; published online March 15, 2016. Assoc. Editor: C. Alberto Figueroa.

J Biomech Eng 138(5), 051002 (Mar 15, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: BIO-15-1315; doi: 10.1115/1.4032851 History: Received June 26, 2015; Revised January 30, 2016

In this paper, an attempt has been made to study sedimentation of a red blood cell (RBC) in a plasma-filled tube numerically. Such behaviors are studied for a healthy and a defective cell which might be created due to human diseases, such as diabetes, sickle-cell anemia, and hereditary spherocytosis. Flow-induced deformation of RBC is obtained using finite-element method (FEM), while flow and fluid–membrane interaction are handled using lattice Boltzmann (LB) and immersed boundary methods (IBMs), respectively. The effects of RBC properties as well as its geometry and orientation on its sedimentation rate are investigated and discussed. The results show that decreasing frontal area of an RBC and/or increasing tube diameter results in a faster settling. Comparison of healthy and diabetic cells reveals that less cell deformability leads to slower settling. The simulation results show that the sicklelike and spherelike RBCs have lower settling velocity as compared with a biconcave discoid cell.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A schematic of the physical domain: an RBC placed in a plasma-filled vertical tube

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Fig. 2

Lattice model: D3Q19

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Fig. 3

(a) A regular icosahedron, generating triangular elements on the surface of (b) a sphere and (c) an RBC

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Fig. 4

Comparison of transient evolution settling velocity of a solid sphere in a liquid-filled vertical channel with experimental data [14]

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Fig. 5

Comparison of transient evolution of Taylor deformation parameter with previous numerical works [52] for (a) a deformable spherical capsule and (b) a deformable RBC in simple shear flow at different dimensionless shear rates and Re = 0.025

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Fig. 6

Time variation of (a) settling velocity and (b) height of the RBC during sedimentation at different initial orientations

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Fig. 7

RBC deformation and dimensionless velocity contours during sedimentation at θ0=0 deg

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Fig. 8

RBC deformation and dimensionless velocity contours during sedimentation at θ0=120 deg

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Fig. 9

RBC deformation and dimensionless velocity contours during sedimentation at θ0=90 deg

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Fig. 10

Time variation of RBC orientation angle during sedimentation for different initial orientations

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Fig. 11

Comparison of time variation of (a) settling velocity and (b) settling height of cell during the sedimentation for healthy and diabetic RBCs

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Fig. 12

Comparison of orientation angle during the sedimentation for two cases of healthy and diabetic cells

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Fig. 13

Dimensionless velocity contours and deformation of a diabetic RBC during sedimentation

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Fig. 14

(a) A diabetic RBC, (b) a sickle-shaped cell in sickle-cell anemia, and (c) a sphere-shaped cell in hereditary spherocytosis

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Fig. 15

Comparison of time variation of (a) settling velocity and (b) settling height of cell during the sedimentation for diabetic RBC, sickle cell, and spherocytosis

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Fig. 16

Dimensionless velocity contours and deformation of a sickle-shaped cell during sedimentation

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Fig. 17

Dimensionless velocity contours and deformation of a sphere-shaped cell during sedimentation

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Fig. 18

Effect of tube size on time variation of (a) settling velocity and (b) settling height of a healthy RBC in blood plasma

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