Strain gages are commonly used to measure bone strain, but only provide strain at a single location. Digital image correlation (DIC) is an optical technique that provides the displacement, and therefore strain, over an entire region of interest on the bone surface. This study compares vertebral body strains measured using strain gages and DIC. The anterior surfaces of 15 cadaveric porcine vertebrae were prepared with a strain rosette and a speckled paint pattern for DIC. The vertebrae were loaded in compression with a materials testing machine, and two high-resolution cameras were used to image the anterior surface of the bones. The mean noise levels for the strain rosette and DIC were 1 με and 24 με, respectively. Bland–Altman analysis was used to compare strain from the DIC and rosette (excluding 44% of trials with some evidence of strain rosette failure or debonding); the mean difference ± 2 standard deviations (SDs) was −108 με ± 702 με for the minimum (compressive) principal strain and −53 με ± 332 με for the maximum (tensile) principal strain. Although the DIC has higher noise, it avoids the relatively high risk we observed of strain gage debonding. These results can be used to develop guidelines for selecting a method to measure strain on bone.