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Research Papers

Thermomechanical Stress in Cryopreservation Via Vitrification With Nanoparticle Heating as a Stress-Moderating Effect

[+] Author and Article Information
David P. Eisenberg

Biothermal Technology Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

John C. Bischof

Bioheat and Mass Transfer Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Yoed Rabin

Biothermal Technology Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
e-mail: rabin@cmu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 12, 2015; final manuscript received November 18, 2015; published online December 8, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Hai-Chao Han.

J Biomech Eng 138(1), 011010 (Dec 08, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: BIO-15-1343; doi: 10.1115/1.4032053 History: Received July 12, 2015; Revised November 18, 2015

This study focuses on thermomechanical effects in cryopreservation associated with a novel approach of volumetric heating by means on nanoparticles in an alternating electromagnetic field. This approach is studied for the application of cryopreservation by vitrification, where the crystalline phase is completely avoided—the cornerstone of cryoinjury. Vitrification can be achieved by quickly cooling the material to cryogenic storage, where ice cannot form. Vitrification can be maintained at the end of the cryogenic protocol by quickly rewarming the material back to room temperature. The magnitude of the rewarming rates necessary to maintain vitrification is much higher than the magnitude of the cooling rates that are required to achieve it in the first place. The most common approach to achieve the required cooling and rewarming rates is by exposing the specimen's surface to a temperature-controlled environment. Due to the underlying principles of heat transfer, there is a size limit in the case of surface heating beyond which crystallization cannot be prevented at the center of the specimen. Furthermore, due to the underlying principles of solid mechanics, there is a size limit beyond which thermal expansion in the specimen can lead to structural damage and fractures. Volumetric heating during the rewarming phase of the cryogenic protocol can alleviate these size limitations. This study suggests that volumetric heating can reduce thermomechanical stress, when combined with an appropriate design of the thermal protocol. Without such design, this study suggests that the level of stress may still lead to structural damage even when volumetric heating is applied. This study proposes strategies to harness nanoparticles heating in order to reduce thermomechanical stress in cryopreservation by vitrification.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the thermal problem, where reference points O and W are used for discussion purposes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Best-fitted experimental data on VS55 mixed with 5 mg/ml of Fe3O4 nanoparticles: specific heat and specific energy absorption rate due to AC magnetic excitation [8]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Thermal history around the sample and at its center for the base-case of surface heating and for the case of added volumetric heating. Also shown are the temperature difference histories across the sample for the above cases, using the reference points illustrated in Fig. 1.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Stress history for the case of surface heating driven by the temperature differences displayed in Fig. 3 (points O and W are illustrated in Fig. 1, while labels mark the axial stress only)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Stress history for the case of added volumetric heating driven by the temperature differences displayed in Fig. 3 (points O and W are illustrated in Fig. 1, while labels mark the axial stress only)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Axial stress history at the wall for the case of volumetric heating subject to various cooling rates at the cooling phase of the protocol (segment B–F), with reference to the based case: 20% slower (9.4 °C/min), nominal rate (11.8 °C/min), 10% faster (13.0 °C/min), and 20% faster (14.2 °C/min); labels mark the base case only

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Axial stress history at the wall for the case of volumetric heating subject to variable heat transfer rates at the surface, where the inset displays the entire stress history for the base case, while the only section affected by heating is shown in greater detail (segment F–H)

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