0
Research Papers

Development of a Gravid Uterus Model for the Study of Road Accidents Involving Pregnant Women

[+] Author and Article Information
F. Auriault

Aix-Marseille Univ,
IFSTTAR,
LBA UMR_T24,
Marseille F-13016, France
e-mail: florent.auriault@ifsttar.fr

L. Thollon

Aix-Marseille Univ,
IFSTTAR,
LBA UMR_T24,
Marseille F-13016, France
e-mail: Lionel.thollon@ifsttar.fr

M. Behr

Aix-Marseille Univ,
IFSTTAR,
LBA UMR_T24,
F-13016 Marseille, France
e-mail: Michel.behr@ifsttar.fr

Manuscript received April 14, 2015; final manuscript received November 14, 2015; published online December 8, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Brian D. Stemper.

J Biomech Eng 138(1), 011009 (Dec 08, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: BIO-15-1175; doi: 10.1115/1.4032055 History: Received April 14, 2015; Revised November 14, 2015

Car accident simulations involving pregnant women are well documented in the literature and suggest that intra-uterine pressure could be responsible for the phenomenon of placental abruption, underlining the need for a realistic amniotic fluid model, including fluid–structure interactions (FSI). This study reports the development and validation of an amniotic fluid model using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation in the LS-DYNA environment. Dedicated to the study of the mechanisms responsible for fetal injuries resulting from road accidents, the fluid model was validated using dynamic loading tests. Drop tests were performed on a deformable water-filled container at acceleration levels that would be experienced in a gravid uterus during a frontal car collision at 25 kph. During the test device braking phase, container deformation induced by inertial effects and FSI was recorded by kinematic analysis. These tests were then simulated in the LS-DYNA environment to validate a fluid model under dynamic loading, based on the container deformations. Finally, the coupling between the amniotic fluid model and an existing finite-element full-body pregnant woman model was validated in terms of pressure. To do so, experimental test results performed on four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) (in which a physical gravid uterus model was inserted) were used. The experimental intra-uterine pressure from these tests was compared to intra uterine pressure from a numerical simulation performed under the same loading conditions. Both free fall numerical and experimental responses appear strongly correlated. The relationship between the amniotic fluid model and pregnant woman model provide intra-uterine pressure values correlated with the experimental test responses. The use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation allows the analysis of FSI between the amniotic fluid and the gravid uterus during a road accident involving pregnant women.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Cheng, H. T. , Wang, Y. C. , Lo, H. C. , Su, L. T. , Lin, C. H. , Sung, F. C. , and Hsieh, C. H. , 2012, “ Trauma During Pregnancy: A Population-Based Analysis of Maternal Outcome,” World J. Surg., 36(12), pp. 2767–2775. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mirza, F. G. , Devine, P. C. , and Gaddipati, S. , 2010, “ Trauma in Pregnancy: A Systematic Approach,” Am. J. Perinatol., 27(7), pp. 579–586. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Weiss, H. B. , Sauber-Schatz, E. K. , and Cook, L. J. , 2008, “ The Epidemiology of Pregnancy-Associated Emergency Department Injury Visits and Their Impact on Birth Outcomes,” Accid. Anal. Prev., 40(3), pp. 1088–1095. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Moorcroft, D. M. , Stitzel, J. D. , Duma, G. G. , and Duma, S. M. , 2003, “ Computational Model of the Pregnant Occupant: Predicting the Risk of Injury in Automobile Crashes,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 189(2), pp. 540–544. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rupp, J. D. , Klinich, K. D. , Moss, S. , Zhou, J. , Pearlman, M. D. , and Schneider, L. W. , 2001, “ Development and Testing of a Prototype Pregnant Abdomen for the Small-Female Hybrid III ATD,” Stapp Car Crash J., 45, pp. 61–78. [PubMed]
Klinich, K. D. , Flannagan, C. A. , Rupp, J. D. , Sochor, M. , Schneider, L. W. , and Pearlman, M. D. , 2008, “ Fetal Outcome in Motor-Vehicle Crashes: Effects of Crash Characteristics and Maternal Restraint,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 198(4), pp. 450–459. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Klinich, K. D. , Schneider, L. W. , Moore, J. L. , and Pearlman, M. D. , 1999, “ Investigations of Crashes Involving Pregnant Occupants,” Annu. Proc. Assoc. Adv. Automot. Med., 44, pp. 37–56.
Rupp, J. D. , Schneider, L. W. , Moss, S. , Zhou, J. , and Pearlman, M. D. , 2001, “ Design, Development, and Testing of a New Pregnant Abdomen for the Hybrid III Small Female Crash Test Dummy,” University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, MI, Final Report No. UMTRI-2001-07.
Klinich, K. D. , Schneider, L. W. , Moore, J. L. , and Pearlman, M. D. , 1998, “ Injuries to Pregnant Occupants in Automotive Crashes,” Annu. Proc. Assoc. Adv. Automot. Med., 42, pp. 57–92.
Modena, A. B. , and Fieni, S. , 2004, “ Amniotic Fluid Dynamics,” Acta Biomed., 75(Suppl. 1), pp. 11–13. [PubMed]
Auriault, F. , Thollon, L. , Peres, J. , Delotte, J. , Kayvantash, K. , Brunet, C. , and Behr, M. , 2014, “ Virtual Traumatology of Pregnant Women: The Pregnant Car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS),” J. Biomech., 47(1), pp. 207–213. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Müller, C. W. , Otte, D. , Decker, S. , Stübig, T. , Panzica, M. , Krettek, C. , and Brand, S. , 2014, “ Vertebral Fractures in Motor Vehicle Accidents-A Medical and Technical Analysis of 33,015 Injured Front-Seat Occupants,” Accid. Anal. Prev., 66, pp. 15–19. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chebil, O. , Behr, M. , Auriault, F. , and Arnoux, P. J. , 2014, “ Biomechanical Analysis of the Splenic Avulsion Mechanism,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., 52(8), pp. 629–637. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Behr, M. , Arnoux, P. J. , Serre, T. , Bidal, S. , Kang, H. S. , Thollon, L. , Cavallero, C. , Kayvantash, K. , and Brunet, C. , 2003, “ A Human Model for Road Safety: From Geometrical Acquisition to Model Validation With Radioss,” Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng., 6(4), pp. 263–273. [CrossRef]
Manoogian, S. J. , 2008, “ Protectin the Pregnant Occupant: Dynamic Material Properties of the Uterus and Placenta,” Ph.D. thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.
Manoogian, S. J. , Bisplinghoff, J. A. , McNally, C. , Kemper, A. R. , Santago, A. C. , and Duma, S. M. , 2008, “ Dynamic Tensile Properties of Human Placenta,” J. Biomech., 41(16), pp. 3436–3440. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Peres, J. , Thollon, L. , Delotte, J. , Tillier, Y. , Brunet, C. , Kayvantash, K. , and Behr, M. , 2012, “ Material Properties of the Placenta Under Dynamic Loading Conditions,” Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng., 17(9), pp. 958–964. [CrossRef]
Foster, C. D. , Hardy, W. N. , Yang, K. H. , King, A. I. , and Hashimoto, S. , 2006, “ High-Speed Seatbelt Pretensioner Loading of the Abdomen,” Stapp Car Crash J., 50, pp. 27–51. [PubMed]
Trosseille, X. , Le-Coz, J. Y. , Potier, P. , and Lassau, J. P. , 2002, “ Abdominal Response to High-Speed Seatbelt Loading,” Stapp Car Crash J., 46, pp. 71–79. [PubMed]
Jansova, M. , and Hyncik, L. , 2008, “ Biomechanical Model of Pregnant Woman for Impact Purpose,” Eng. Mech., 15(4), pp. 225–240.
Duma, S. M. , Moorcroft, D. M. , Stitzel, J. D. , and Duma, G. G. , 2004, “ Evaluating Pregnant Occupant Restraints: The Effect of Local Uterine Compression on the Risk of Fetal Injury,” Annu. Proc. Assoc. Adv. Automot. Med., 48, pp. 103–114. [PubMed]
Cheng, J. , Howard, I. C. , and Rennison, M. , 2010, “ Study of an Infant Brain Subjected to Periodic Motion Via a Custom Experimental Apparatus Design and Finite Element Modelling,” J. Biomech., 43(15), pp. 2887–2896. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fontenier, B. , Hault-Dubrulle, A. , Rahmoun, J. , Naceur, H. , Drazetic, P. , and Fontaine, C. , 2014, “ Experimental and Numerical Studies of Fluid-Structure Interaction Phenomena Inside the Head When Subjected to a Dynamical Loading,” Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng., 17(Suppl. 1), pp. 46–47. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Sample geometrical parameters and experimental tensile setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Deceleration curves for both initial heights of fall

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Container model setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Experimental and numerical abdominal loading tests for the coupling validation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Tensile tests on container samples: simulation result compared to the experimental corridor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Relative container displacement during simulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Relative displacement for the first height of fall (500 mm): Simulation result and experimental corridor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Relative displacement for the second height of fall (800 mm): Simulation result and experimental corridor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Container changing shape for the first height of fall (500 mm): Simulation result compared to experimental results (A): first squash, (B): first stretch, and (C): second squash

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Container changing shape for the second height of fall (800 mm): Simulation result compared to experimental results. (A): first squash, (B): first stretch, (C): second squash.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Abdominal loading tests: Experimental pressure results compared to simulation result with the new version of the PROMIS model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Pregnant abdomen validation

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In