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Research Papers

Dynamic Properties of Tympanic Membrane in a Chinchilla Otitis Media Model Measured With Acoustic Loading

[+] Author and Article Information
Zachary Yokell, Xuelin Wang

School of Aerospace and Mechanical
Engineering and OU Bioengineering Center,
University of Oklahoma,
Norman, OK 73019

Rong Z. Gan

Professor of Biomedical Engineering
School of Aerospace and Mechanical
Engineering and OU Bioengineering Center,
University of Oklahoma,
865 Asp Avenue, Room 200,
Norman, OK 73019
e-mail: rgan@ou.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 22, 2014; final manuscript received April 11, 2015; published online June 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Guy M. Genin.

J Biomech Eng 137(8), 081006 (Aug 01, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: BIO-14-1639; doi: 10.1115/1.4030410 History: Received December 22, 2014; Revised April 11, 2015; Online June 09, 2015

Otitis media is the most common infectious disease in young children, which results in changes in the thickness and mechanical properties of the tympanic membrane (TM) and induces hearing loss. However, there are no published data for the dynamic properties of the TM in otitis media ears, and it is unclear how the mechanical property changes are related to TM thickness variation. This paper reports a study of the measurement of the dynamic properties of the TM in a chinchilla acute otitis media (AOM) model using acoustic loading and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). AOM was created through transbullar injection of Haemophilus influenzae into the middle ear, and AOM samples were prepared 4 days after inoculation. Vibration of the TM specimen induced by acoustic loading was measured via LDV over a frequency range of 0.1–8 kHz. The experiment was then simulated in a finite element (FE) model, and the inverse-problem solving method was used to determine the complex modulus in the frequency domain. Results from 12 ears (six control and six AOM) show that the storage modulus of the TM from AOM ears was on average 53% higher than that of control ears, while the loss factor was 17.3% higher in control ears than in AOM ears at low-frequency (f < 1 kHz). At high-frequency (e.g., 8000 Hz), there was a mean 40% increase in storage modulus of the TM from AOM compared to control samples. At peak frequency (e.g., 3 kHz), there was a 19.5% increase in loss factor in control samples compared to AOM samples. These findings quantify the changes induced by AOM in the chinchilla TM, namely, a significant increase in both the storage and loss moduli.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Chinchilla TM. Box indicates region that was excised and tested.

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Fig. 2

Experimental setup for acoustic driving dynamic testing of TMs

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Fig. 3

(a) Lateral view of the FE model showing TM (right), end of delivery tube (left), acoustic elements (surrounding), and boundary conditions (triangles). (b) Plane view of the FE model showing TM (center) with boundary conditions (triangles). Note that the mesh shown here is coarser than that used in the actual models for visualization purpose.

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Fig. 4

Histology sections of (a) control chinchilla TM and (b) chinchilla TM after 4 days of otitis media infection with external ear canal (EEC) and middle ear cavity (MEC) labeled

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Fig. 5

Standard linear solid model with n = 3 parameters E0, E1, and τ1

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Fig. 6

SEM images of (a) control chinchilla TM and (b) chinchilla TM after 4 days of otitis media infection

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Fig. 7

Vibration amplitude versus frequency curves obtained from dynamic tests on (a) control group and (b) otitis media group

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Fig. 8

Comparison of experimental results to modeling curves for the frequency dependent displacement amplitude for n = 2 control samples and n = 2 AOM samples

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Fig. 9

Dynamic properties of control (n = 6) and AOM (n = 6) chinchilla TMs over the frequency range of 100–8000 Hz. Storage modulus for control (a) and AOM (b) animals, loss modulus for control (c) and AOM (d) animals, and loss factor for control (e) and AOM (f) animals.

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Fig. 10

Mean storage modulus (a), loss modulus (b), and loss factor, and (c) of chinchilla TMs with error bars

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