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Research Papers

Stress–Strain Measurements in Vitrified Arteries Permeated With Synthetic Ice Modulators

[+] Author and Article Information
David P. Eisenberg

Biothermal Technology Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA 15232
e-mail: deisenbe@andrew.cmu.edu

Yoed Rabin

Biothermal Technology Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA 15232
e-mail: rabin@cmu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 23, 2014; final manuscript received March 23, 2015; published online June 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Ram Devireddy.

J Biomech Eng 137(8), 081007 (Aug 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: BIO-14-1642; doi: 10.1115/1.4030294 History: Received December 23, 2014; Revised March 23, 2015; Online June 09, 2015

This study measures the Young's modulus in vitrified blood vessels below the glass transition temperature in conditions relevant to cryogenic storage and focuses on the cryoprotective agents (CPAs) cocktail DP6 mixed with synthetic ice modulators (SIMs). Small steplike strain changes were observed during the loading without affecting the bulk behavior, suggesting microfracture occurrences resembling previous observation on microfracture formation under compression in crystallized blood vessels. Young's modulus was measured to be 0.92–3.01 GPa, with no clear indication of SIM dependency on the Young's modulus. Instead, the range of values is attributed to variations between specimens of the same species.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the key elements of the cooling mechanism for mechanical testing. During experimentation, the artery is attached to the mechanical testing rods (see Fig. 2), the cooling chamber is closed with a brass cover, and the system is covered with thermal insulation from all sides.

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Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the mechanical-rods thermal insulators, which were designed to accommodate smaller diameter arteries

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Fig. 3

An artery sample placed in the cooling chamber and ready for testing, where the cover of the cooling chamber has to be installed and insulated before experimentation. Also shown are thermocouples connected to both ends of the sample, where an additional thermocouple at the center of the sample is yet to be placed.

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Fig. 4

A typical thermal history for tensile testing experimentations

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Fig. 5

Images used to calculate the cross-sectional area of the artery specimens, including: (a) a stills image of four representative segments and a ruler, to determine area per pixel; (b) a black and white processed image; and (c) an isolated segment used for pixel counting

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Fig. 6

Three typical stress–strain curves obtained in the current study: (case 1) representing the linear-elastic behavior found for specimens permeated with all solutions except for the cocktail DP6 + PEG400; (case 2) a possibly hardening specimen, permeated with DP6 + PEG400; and (case 3) a specimen permeated with DP6 + PEG400, possibly exhibiting viscous flow or plastic deformations

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Fig. 7

Results of repeated loading–unloading cycles of a blood vessel specimen permeated with DP6 + 12% PEG400: (a) the loading portions of the protocol and (b) the unloading portions of the protocol; labels A, B, and C points to steplike changes of strain, possibly associated with the formation of microfractures

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