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Research Papers

Prediction Models for the Erector Spinae Muscle Cross-Sectional Area

[+] Author and Article Information
Celal Gungor

Forest Industrial Engineering,
Izmir Katip Celebi University,
Cigli, Izmir 35620, Turkey
e-mail: celal.gungor@ikc.edu.tr

Ruoliang Tang

Occupational Science and Technology,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
Milwaukee, WI 53211
e-mail: tangr@uwm.edu

Richard F. Sesek

Associate Professor
Industrial and Systems Engineering,
Auburn University,
Auburn, AL 36849
e-mail: sesek@auburn.edu

Kenneth Bo Foreman

Associate Professor
Physical Therapy,
University of Utah,
Salt Lake City, UT 84108
e-mail: bo.foreman@hsc.utah.edu

Sean Gallagher

Associate Professor
Industrial and Systems Engineering,
Auburn University,
Auburn, AL 36849
e-mail: seangallagher@auburn.edu

Gerard A. Davis

Associate Professor
Industrial and Systems Engineering,
Auburn University,
Auburn, AL 36849
e-mail: davisga@auburn.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 26, 2014; final manuscript received January 26, 2015; published online June 3, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Brian D. Stemper.

J Biomech Eng 137(7), 071012 (Jul 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: BIO-14-1419; doi: 10.1115/1.4029984 History: Received August 26, 2014; Revised January 26, 2015; Online June 03, 2015

Accurate and reliable “individualized” low back erector spinae muscle (ESM) data are of importance to estimate its force producing capacity. Knowing the force producing capacity, along with spinal loading, enhances the understanding of low back injury mechanisms. The objective of this study was to build regression models to estimate the ESM cross-sectional area (CSA). Measurements were taken from axial-oblique magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of a large historical population [54 females and 53 males at L3/L4, 50 females and 44 males at L4/L5, and 41 females and 35 males at L5/S1 levels]. Results suggest that an individual's ESM CSA can be accurately estimated based on his/her gender, height, and weight. Results further show that there is no significant difference between the measured and estimated ESM CSAs, and expected absolute error is less than 15%.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Low back muscles and spinal structures at the L3/L4 IVD level

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Fig. 2

Sagittal and axial-oblique MRI scans at the last three lumbar IVD levels

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Fig. 3

Tracing of contours in rhinoceros

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Fig. 4

Gender comparisons on the CSAs of ESMs: (a) right ESM, (b) left ESM, and (c) total ESM

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