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Research Papers

The Influence of the Aortic Root Geometry on Flow Characteristics of a Prosthetic Heart Valve

[+] Author and Article Information
Oleksandr Barannyk, Peter Oshkai

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Victoria,
P.O. Box 1700, STN CSC,
Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 3, 2014; final manuscript received February 4, 2015; published online March 5, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Ender A. Finol.

J Biomech Eng 137(5), 051005 (May 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: BIO-14-1436; doi: 10.1115/1.4029747 History: Received September 03, 2014; Revised February 04, 2015; Online March 05, 2015

In this paper, performance of aortic heart valve prosthesis in different geometries of the aortic root is investigated experimentally. The objective of this investigation is to establish a set of parameters, which are associated with abnormal flow patterns due to the flow through a prosthetic heart valve implanted in the patients that had certain types of valve diseases prior to the valve replacement. Specific valve diseases were classified into two clinical categories and were correlated with the corresponding changes in aortic root geometry while keeping the aortic base diameter fixed. These categories correspond to aortic valve stenosis and aortic valve insufficiency. The control case that corresponds to the aortic root of a patient without valve disease was used as a reference. Experiments were performed at test conditions corresponding to 70 beats/min, 5.5 L/min target cardiac output, and a mean aortic pressure of 100 mmHg. By varying the aortic root geometry, while keeping the diameter of the orifice constant, it was possible to investigate corresponding changes in the levels of Reynolds shear stress and establish the possibility of platelet activation and, as a result of that, the formation of blood clots.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the flow visualization setup (image courtesy of ViVitro Labs, Inc.)

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Fig. 2

Schematics of the test chamber and the aortic valve (image courtesy of ViVitro Labs, Inc.)

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Fig. 3

(a) Orientation of the valve with respect to the left coronary artery, the right coronary artery and the noncoronary cusp and the PIV data acquisition planes (dashed lines) and (b) schematic of the prototype trileaflet PV

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Fig. 4

Variation of flow rate as a function of time during a typical cardiac cycle. Black circles correspond to the phases of the cardiac cycle, at which PIV data were obtained.

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Fig. 5

Major parts of the aorta and principal dimensions of the aortic root sinuses

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Fig. 6

Grid pattern implemented to verify the absence of optical distortions for flow imaging

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Fig. 7

Streamline patterns and contours of velocity magnitude (Vavg, m/s) at t/T = 0.13; (a) normal geometry, (b) dilated aortic root, and (c) constricted aortic root

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Fig. 8

Contours of RSS (dyn/cm2) at t/T = 0.13; (a) normal geometry, (b) dilated aortic root, and (c) constricted aortic root

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Fig. 9

Contours of urms, m/s (top column) and vrms, m/s (bottom column) in plane 1 at t/T = 0.13; (a) normal geometry, (b) dilated aortic root, and (c) constricted aortic root

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