Central artery stiffness has emerged over the past 15 years as a clinically significant indicator of cardiovascular function and initiator of disease. Loss of elastic fiber integrity is one of the primary contributors to increased arterial stiffening in aging, hypertension, and related conditions. Elastic fibers consist of an elastin core and multiple glycoproteins; hence defects in any of these constituents can adversely affect arterial wall mechanics. In this paper, we focus on mechanical consequences of the loss of fibulin-5, an elastin-associated glycoprotein involved in elastogenesis. Specifically, we compared the biaxial mechanical properties of five central arteries—the ascending thoracic aorta, descending thoracic aorta, suprarenal abdominal aorta, infrarenal abdominal aorta, and common carotid artery—from male and female wild-type and fibulin-5 deficient mice. Results revealed that, independent of sex, all five regions in the fibulin-5 deficient mice manifested a marked increase in structural stiffness but also a marked decrease in elastic energy storage and typically an increase in energy dissipation, with all differences being most dramatic in the ascending and abdominal aortas. Given that the primary function of large arteries is to store elastic energy during systole and to use this energy during diastole to work on the blood, fibulin-5 deficiency results in a widespread diminishment of central artery function that can have significant effects on hemodynamics and cardiac function.