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Technical Brief

Cervine Tibia Morphology and Mechanical Strength: A Suitable Tibia Model?

[+] Author and Article Information
Alexander D. W. Throop, Alexander K. Landauer

Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering,
Clarkson University,
8 Clarkson Avenue, Box 5725,
Potsdam, NY 13699

Alexander Martin Clark

Canton-Potsdam Hospital,
Potsdam, NY 13676;
Sharon Hospital,
Sharon, CT 06069

Laurel Kuxhaus

Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering,
Clarkson University,
8 Clarkson Avenue, Box 5725,
Potsdam, NY 13699
e-mail: lkuxhaus@clarkson.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 20, 2014; final manuscript received November 19, 2014; published online February 5, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Sean S. Kohles.

J Biomech Eng 137(3), 034503 (Mar 01, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: BIO-14-1282; doi: 10.1115/1.4029302 History: Received June 20, 2014; Revised November 19, 2014; Online February 05, 2015

Animal models for orthopaedic implant testing are well-established but morphologically dissimilar to human tibiae; notably, most are shorter. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the morphology and mechanical properties of the cervine tibia, particularly with regard to its suitability for testing orthopaedic implants. Two endosteal and eleven periosteal measurements were made on 15 cervine tibiae. The mechanical strength in axial compression and torsion was measured using 11 tibiae. The cervine tibia is morphologically similar to the human tibia and more closely matches the length of the human tibia than current tibia models (ovine, porcine, and caprine). The distal epiphysis dimensions are notably different, but no more so than the current tibia models. The torsional stiffness of the cervine tibia is within the range of previously reported values for human tibiae. Furthermore, in many regions, cervine tibiae are abundant and locally available at a low cost. Given these mechanical and morphological data, coupled with potential cost savings if regionally available, the cervine tibia may be an appropriate model for orthopaedic implant testing.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Measurement location of each dimension measured along the cervine tibia

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Fig. 2

Potted specimen (left); representative axial compression fracture (middle) and load–displacement curve; and representative torsional fracture (right) and torque–displacement curve

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Fig. 3

Representative tibiae of (a) human, (b) deer, (c) sheep, (d) pig, and (e) goat. Note qualitatively that the deer tibia is longer and more slender than the others animal tibiae, and appears to have an aspect ratio similar to that of the human tibia.

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Fig. 4

Measurement results of each cervine dimension compared with reported human values from Ref. [12]

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Fig. 5

Axial stiffness and ultimate strength of cervine tibiae

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Fig. 6

Torsional stiffness and ultimate strength of cervine tibiae. Only two specimens failed in torsion. Human torsional measurements from Ref. [17] and ultimate strength measurements from Ref. [12].

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