0
Review Article

Rotational Acceleration, Brain Tissue Strain, and the Relationship to Concussion

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew Post

School of Human Kinetics,
Faculty of Health Science,
University of Ottawa,
200 Lees,
Room A106,
Ottawa, ON K1S 5S9, Canada
e-mail: apost@uottawa.ca

T. Blaine Hoshizaki

School of Human Kinetics,
Faculty of Health Science,
University of Ottawa,
200 Lees, Room A106,
Ottawa, ON K1S 5S9, Canada

Manuscript received March 19, 2014; final manuscript received October 29, 2014; published online January 29, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Barclay Morrison.

J Biomech Eng 137(3), 030801 (Mar 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: BIO-14-1122; doi: 10.1115/1.4028983 History: Received March 19, 2014; Revised October 29, 2014; Online January 29, 2015

The mechanisms of concussion have been investigated by many researchers using a variety of methods. However, there remains much debate over the relationships between head kinematics from an impact and concussion. This review presents the links between research conducted in different disciplines to better understand the relationship between linear and rotational acceleration and brain strains that have been postulated as the root cause of concussion. These concepts are important when assigning performance variables for helmet development, car design, and protective innovation research.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

McKee, A. C., Gavett, B. E., Stern, R. A., Nowinski, C. J., Cantu, R. C., Kowall, N. W., Perl, D. P., Hedley-White, T., Price, B., Sullivan, C., Morin, P., Lee, H., Kubilus, C. A., Daneshvar, D. H., Wulff, M., and Budson, A. E., 2010, “TDPE-43 Proteinopathy and Motor Neuron Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy,” J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 69(9), pp. 918–929. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bazarian, J. J., McClung, J., Shah, M. N., Cheng, Y. T., Flesher, W., and Kraus, J., 2005, “Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States, 1998–2000,” Brain Inj., 19(2), pp. 85–91. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Faul, M., Xu, L., Wald, M., and Coronado, V., 2010, “Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations and Deaths,” Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta, GA.
Halstead, M. E., and Walter, K. D., 2010, “American Academy of Pediatrics. Clinical Report-Sport-Related Concussion in Children and Adolescents,” Pediatrics, 126(3), pp. 597–615. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
National Centre for Injury Prevention and Control, 2003, “Report to Congress on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Steps to Prevent a Serious Public Health Problem,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
Zhang, L., Yang, K. H., and King, A. I., 2004, “A Proposed Injury Threshold for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 126(2), pp. 226–236. [CrossRef]
Kleiven, S., 2006, “Evaluation of Head Injury Criteria Using a Finite Element Model Validated Against Experiments on Localized Brain Motion, Intracerebral Acceleration, and Intracranial Pressure,” Int. J. Crashworthiness, 11(1), pp. 65–79. [CrossRef]
Kleiven, S., 2007, “Predictors for Traumatic Brain Injuries Evaluated Through Accident Reconstruction,” Stapp Car Crash J., 51, pp. 81–114. [PubMed]
Forero Rueda, M. A., Cui, L., and Gilchrist, M. D., 2011, “Finite Element Modelling of Equestrian Helmet Impacts Exposes the Need to Address Rotational Kinematics in Future Helmet Designs,” Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng., 14(12), pp. 1021–1031. [CrossRef]
Ommaya, A. K., and Gennarelli, T. A., 1974, “Cerebral Concussion and Traumatic Unconsciousness: Correlation of Experimental and Clinical Observations on Blunt Head Injuries,” Brain, 97(4), pp. 633–654. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bain, A. C., and Meaney, D. F., 2000, “Tissue-Level Thresholds for Axonal Damage in an Experimental Model of Central Nervous System White Matter Injury,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 122(6), pp. 615–622. [CrossRef]
Morrison, B., III, Cater, H. L., Wang, C. C. B., Thomas, F. C., Hung, C. T., Ateshian, G. A., and Sundstrom, L. E., 2003, “A Tissue Level Tolerance Criterion for Living Brain Developed in an In Vitro Model of Traumatic Mechanical Loading,” SAE Paper No. 2003-22-00066.
Shuck, L. Z., and Advani, S. H., 1972, “Rheological Response of Human Brain Tissue in Shear,” J Basic Eng., 94(4), pp. 905–912. [CrossRef]
Smith, D. H., and Meaney, D. F., 2000, “Axonal Damage in Traumatic Brain Injury,” Neuroscientist, 6(6), pp. 483–495. [CrossRef]
Nicolle, S., Lounis, M., and Willinger, R., 2004, “Shear Properties of Brain Tissue Over a Frequency Range Relevant for Automotive Impact Situations: New Experimental Results,” Stapp Car Crash J., 48, pp. 239–258. [PubMed]
Rashid, B., Destrade, M., and Gilchrist, M. D., 2012, “Mechanical Characterization of Brain Tissue in Compression at Dynamic Strain Rates,” J.Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 10, pp. 23–38. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rashid, B., Destrade, M., and Gilchrist, M. D., 2014, “Mechanical Characterization of Brain Tissue in Tension at Dynamic Strain Rates,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 33, pp. 43–54. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Meaney, D. F., and Smith, D. H., 2011, “Biomechanics of Concussion,” Clin. Sports Med., 30(1), pp. 19–31. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Geddes, D. M., LaPlaca, M. C., and Cargill, R. S., 2003, “Susceptibility of Hippocampal Neurons to Mechanically Induced Injury,” Exp. Neurol., 184(1), pp. 420–427. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Morrison, B., III, Cater, H. L., Benham, C. D., and Sundstrom, L. E., 2006, “An In Vitro Model of Traumatic Brain Injury Utilizing Two-Dimensional Stretch of Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures,” J. Neurosci. Methods, 150(2), pp. 192–201. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Morrison, B., III, Elkin, B. S., Dollé, J. P., and Yarmush, M. L., 2011, “In Vitro Models of Traumatic Brain Injury,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 13, pp. 91–126. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cater, H. L., Sundstrom, L. E., and Morrison, B., III, 2006, “Temporal Development of Hippocampal Cell Death is Dependent on Tissue Strain but not Strain Rate,” J Biomech., 39(15), pp. 2810–2818. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
LaPlaca, M. C., Cullen, D. C., McLoughlin, J. J., and Cargill, R. S., II, 2005, “High Rate Shear Strain pf Three-Dimensional Neural Cell Cultures: A New In Vitro Traumatic Brain Injury Model,” J. Biomech., 38(5), pp. 1093–1105. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cullen, D. K., and LaPlaca, M. C., 2006, “Neuronal Response to High Rate Shear Deformation Depends on Heterogeneity of the Local Strain Field,” J. Neurotrauma, 23(9), pp. 1304–1319. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Morrison, B., III, Eberwine, J. H., Meaney, D. F., and McIntosh, T. K., 2000, “Traumatic Injury Induces Differential Expression of Cell Death Genes in Organotypic Brain Slice Cultures Determined by Complementary DNA Array Hybridization,” Neuroscience, 96(1), pp. 131–139. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Elkin, B. S., and Morrison, B., III, 2007, “Region-Specific Tolerance Criteria for the Living Brain,” Stapp Car Crash J., 51, pp. 127–138. [PubMed]
Gray, J. A., and Ritchie, J. M., 1954, “Effects of Stretch on Single Myelinated Nerve Fibres,” J. Physiol., 124(1), pp. 84–99. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Haftek, J., 1970, “Stretch Injury of Peripheral Nerve. Acute Effects of Stretching on Rabbit Nerve,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Br., 52(2), pp. 354–365. [PubMed]
Koike, H., 1987, “The Extensibility of Aplysia Nerve and the Determination of True Axon Length,” J. Physiol, 390, pp. 469–487. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Galbraith, J. A., Thibault, L. E., and Matteson, D. R., 1993, “Mechanical and Electrical Responses of the Squid Giant Axon to Simple Elongation,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 115(1), pp. 13–22. [CrossRef]
Saatman, K. E., 1993, “An Isolated Single Myelinated Nerve Fiver Model for the Biomechanics of Axonal Injury,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
Mao, H., Jin, X., Zhang, L., Yang, K. H., Igarashi, T., Noble-Haeusslein, L. J., and King, A. I., 2010, “Finite Element Analysis of Controlled Cortical Impact-Induced Cell Loss,” J. Neurotrauma, 27(5), pp. 877–888. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mao, H., Zhang, L., Yang, K. H., and King, A. I., 2006, “Application of a Finite Element Model of the Brain to Study Traumatic Brain Injury Mechanisms in the Rat,” Stapp Car Crash J., 50, pp. 583–600. [PubMed]
Zhang, L., Yang, K., Dwarampudi, R., Omori, K., Li, T., Chang, K., Hardy, W. N., Khalil, T. B., and King, A. I., 2001, “Recent Advances in Brain Injury Research: A New Human Head Model Development and Validation,” Stapp Car Crash J., 45, pp. 369–393. [PubMed]
Prange, M. T., Meaney, D. F., and Margulies, S. S., 2000, “Defining Brain Mechanical Properties: Effects of Region, Direction, and Species,” Stapp Car Crash J., 44, pp. 205–213. [PubMed]
Kendall, M., Post, A., Rousseau, P., Oeur, A., Gilchrist, M. D., and Hoshizaki, T. B., 2012, “A Comparison of Dynamic Impact Response and Brain Deformation Metrics Within the Cerebrum of Head Impact Reconstructions Representing Three Mechanisms of Head Injury in Ice Hockey,” Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference, Dublin, Ireland, Sept. 10–14.
Zanetti, K., Post, A., Karton, C., Kendall, M., Hoshizaki, T. B., and Gilchrist, M. D., 2013, “Identifying Risk Profiles for Player Positions in American Football Using Physical and Finite Element Modeling Reconstructions,” Proceedings of IRCOBI, Gothenburg, Sweden, Sept. 14–17.
Cullen, D. K., Vemekar, V. N., and LaPlaca, M. C., 2011, “Trauma-Induced Plasmalemma Disruptions in Three-Dimensional Neural Cultures Are Dependent on Strain Modality and Rate,” J. Neurotrauma, 28(11), pp. 2219–2233. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lamy, M., Baumgartner, D., Yoganandan, N., Stemper, B. D., and Willinger, R., 2013, “Experimentally Validated Three-Dimensional Finite Element Model of the Rat for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., 51(3), pp. 353–365. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
King, A. I., Yang, K. H., Zhang, L., Hardy, W., and Viano, D. C., 2003, “Is Head Injury Caused by Linear or Angular Acceleration,” Proceedings of the IRCOBI Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, Sept. 24–27.
Post, A., and Hoshizaki, T. B., 2012, “Mechanical Properties Describing Brain Impact Injuries: A Review,” Trauma, 14(4), pp. 327–349. [CrossRef]
Gurdjian, E. S., and Lissner, H. R., 1944, “Mechanisms of Head Injury as Studied by the Cathode Ray Occiloscope: Preliminary Report,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psych., 1(6), pp. 393–399.
Gennarelli, T. A., Thibault, L. E., and Ommaya, A., 1971, “Comparison of Translational and Rotational Accelerations in Experimental Cerebral Concussion,” Proceedings of the 15th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Coronado, CA, November 17–19.
Gurdjian, E. S., Hodgson, V. R., Thomas, L. M., and Patrick, L. M., 1968, “Significance of Relative Movements of Scalp, Skull, and Intracranial Contents During Impact Injury to the Head,” J. Neurosurg., 29(1), pp. 70–72. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Adams, J. H., Graham, D. I., and Gennarelli, T. A., 1981, “Acceleration Induced Head Injury in the Monkey. II. Neuropathology,” Acta Neuropathol., 7, pp. 26–28. [CrossRef]
Gennarelli, T. A., Thibault, L. E., and Ommaya, A., 1972, “Pathophysiological Responses to Rotational and Translational Accelerations of the Head,” SAE Paper No. 720970. [CrossRef]
Gennarelli, T. A., Thibault, L. E., Adams, J. H., Graham, D. I., Thompson, C. J., and Marcincin, R. P., 1982, “Diffuse Axonal Injury and Traumatic Coma in the Primate,” Ann. Neurol., 12(6), pp. 564–574. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gennarelli, T. A., Thibault, L. E., Tomel, G., Wiser, R., Graham, D., and Adams, J., 1987, “Directional Dependence of Axonal Brain Injury Due to Centroidal and Non Centroidal Acceleration,” Proceedings of the Stapp Car Crash Conference, New Orleans, LA, September 28–30, pp. 49–53.
Gennarelli, T. A., Adams, J. H., and Graham, D. I., 1981, “Acceleration Induced Head Injury in the Monkey. I. The Model, Its Mechanical and Physiological Correlates,” Acta Neuropathol., 7, pp. 23–25. [CrossRef]
Gurdjian, E. S., Lissner, H. R., and Evans, F. G., 1961, “Intracranial Pressure and Acceleration Accompanying Head Impacts in Human Cadavers,” Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 113(4), pp. 185–190. [PubMed]
Thomas, L. M., Roberts, V. L., and Gurdjian, E. S., 1967, “Impact-Induced Pressure Gradients Along Three Orthogonal Axes in the Human Skull,” J. Neurosurg., 26(3), pp. 316–321. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kopecky, J. A., and Ripperger, E. A., 1969, “Closed Brain Injuries: An Engineering Analysis,” J. Biomech., 2(1), pp. 29–34. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kenner, V. H., and Goldsmith, W., 1972, “Dynamic Loading of a Fluid Filled Spherical Shell,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 14(9), pp. 557–569. [CrossRef]
Viano, D. C., King, A. I., Melvin, J. W., and Weber, K., 1989, “Injury Biomechanics Research: An Essential Element in the Prevention of Trauma,” J. Biomech., 22(5), pp. 403–417. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hardy, W. N., Khalil, T. B., and King, A. I., 1994, “Literature Review of Head Injury Biomechanics,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 15(4), pp. 561–586. [CrossRef]
Holbourn, A. H. S., 1943, “Mechanics of Head Injuries,” Lancet, 3(6), pp. 147–149.
Pellman, E. J., Viano, D. C., Tucker, A. M., Casson, I. R., and Waekerle, J. F., 2003, “Concussion in Professional Football: Reconstruction of Game Impacts and Injuries,” Neurosurgery, 53(4), pp. 799–812. [PubMed]
Wennberg, R. A., and Tator, C. H., 2003, “National Hockey League Reported Concussions, 1986–87 to 2001–02,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci., 30(3), pp. 206–209. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Casson, I. R., Viano, D. C., Powell, J. W., and Pellman, E. J., 2010, “Twelve Years of National Football League Concussion Data,” Sports Health, 2(6), pp. 471–483. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kimpara, H., and Iwamoto, M., 2011, “Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Predictors Based on Angular Accelerations During Impacts,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 40(1), pp. 114–126. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Post, A., Hoshizaki, T. B., and Gilchrist, M. D., 2012, “Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Loading Curve Shape on Brain Injury Predictors,” J. Biomech., 45(4), pp. 679–683. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Willinger, R., and Baumgartner, D., 2003, “Numerical and Physical Modelling of the Human Head Under Impact—Towards New Injury Criteria,” Int. J. Veh. Des., 32, pp. 94–115. [CrossRef]
Deck, C., and Willinger, R., 2008, “Improved Head Injury Criteria Based on Head FE Model,” Int. J. Crashworthiness, 13(6), pp. 667–678. [CrossRef]
Post, A., Oeur, A., Hoshizaki, T. B., and Gilchrist, M. D., 2011, “Examination of the Relationship of Peak Linear and Angular Acceleration to Brain Deformation Metrics in Hockey Helmet Impacts,” Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng., 16(5), pp. 511–519. [CrossRef]
Post, A., Oeur, A., Hoshizaki, T. B., and Gilchrist, M. D., 2012, “The Influence of Centric and Non-Centric Impacts to American Football Helmets on the Correlation Between Commonly used Metrics in Brain Injury Research,” Proc of IRCOBI, Dublin, Ireland, Sept. 10–14.
Post, A., Oeur, A., Hoshizaki, T. B., and Gilchrist, M. D., 2013, “An Examination of American Football Helmets Using Brain Deformation Metrics Associated With Concussion,” Mater. Des., 45, pp. 653–662. [CrossRef]
Bandak, F. A., and Eppinger, R. H., 1994, “A Three-Dimensional FE Analysis of the Human Brain Under Combined Rotational and Translational Accelerations,” Proceedings of the 38th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 145–163.
Takhounts, E. G., Craig, M. J., Moorhouse, K., McFadden, J., and Hasija, V., 2013, “Development of Brain Injury Criteria (BrIC),” Stapp Car Crash J., 57, pp. 243–266. [PubMed]
Hoshizaki, T. B., and Brien, S. E., 2004, “The Science and Design of Head Protection in Sport,” Neurosurgery, 55(4), pp. 956–967. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rowson, S., Duma, S. M., Beckwith, J. G., Chu, J. J., Greenwald, R. M., Crisco, J. J., Brolinson, P. G., Duhaime, A., McAllister, T. W., and Maerlender, A. C., 2012, “Rotational Head Kinematics in Football Impacts: An Injury Risk Function for Concussion,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 40(1), pp. 1–13. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Padgaonkar, A. J., Kreiger, K. W., and King, A. I., 1975, “Measurement of Angular Acceleration of a Rigid Body Using Linear Accelerometers,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 42(3), pp. 552–556. [CrossRef]
Newman, J. A., Beusenberg, M. C., Shewchenko, N., Withnall, C., and Fournier, E., 2005, “Verification of Biomechanical Methods Employed in a Comprehensive Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and the Effectiveness of American Football Helmets,” J. Biomech., 38(7), pp. 1469–1481. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rowson, S., and Duma, S. M., 2013, “Brain Injury Prediction: Assessing the Combined Probability of Concussion Using Linear and Rotational Head Acceleration,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 41(5), pp. 873–882. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rowson, S., Brolinson, G., Goforth, M., Dietter, D., and Duma, S., 2009, “Linear and Angular Head Acceleration Measurements in Collegiate Football,” ASME J. Biomech., Eng., 131(6), p. 061016. [CrossRef]
Daniel, R. W., Rowson, S., and Duma, S. M., 2012, “Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 40(4), pp. 976–981. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jadischke, R., Viano, D. C., Dau, N., King, A. I., and McCarthy, J., 2013, “On the Accuracy of the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System Used in Football Helmets,” J. Biomech., 46(13), pp. 2310–2315. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Beckwith, J. G., Greenwald., R. M., and Chu, J. J., 2012, “Measuring Head Kinematics in Football: Correlation Between the Head Impact Telemetry System and Hybrid III Headform,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 40(1), pp. 237–248. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ji, S., Zhao, W., Li, Z., and McAllister, T. W., 2014, “Head Impact Accelerations for Brain Strain-Related Responses in Contact Sports: A Model-Based Investigation,” Biomech. Modell. Mechanobiol., 13(5), pp. 1121–1136. [CrossRef]
Post, A., Oeur, A., Walsh, E. S., Hoshizaki, T. B., and Gilchrist, M. D., 2013, “A Centric/Non-Centric Physical and Finite Element Model Methodology for the Evaluation of American Football Helmets to Evaluate Risk of Concussion,” Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng., 17(16), pp. 1785–1800. [CrossRef]
Karton, C., Hoshizaki, T. B., and Gilchrist, M. D., 2013, “The Influence of Inbound Mass on the Dynamic Impact Response of the Hybrid III Headform and Tissue Deformation Response Characteristics,” J. ASTM Int.
Post, A., Oeur, A., Hoshizaki, T. B., and Gilchrist, M. D., 2014, “Differences in Region Specific Brain Tissue Stress and Strain due to Impact Velocity for Simulated American Football Impacts,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part P, (in press).
Walsh, E. S., Rousseau, P., and Hoshizaki, T. B., 2011, “The Influence of Impact Location and Angle on the Dynamic Impact Response of a Hybrid III Headform,” Sports Eng.13(3), pp. 135–143. [CrossRef]
Post, A., 2013, “The Influence of Dynamic Response Characteristics on Traumatic Brain Injury,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Post, A., Hoshizaki, T. B., Brien, S., Cusimano, M. D., Marshall, S., and Gilchrist, M. D., 2014, “The Influence of Dynamic Response and Brain Deformation Metrics on the Occurrence of Subdural Hematoma in Different Regions of the Brain,” J Neurosurg., 120(2), pp. 453–461. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Post, A., Kendall, M., Koncan, D., Cournoyer, J., Hoshizaki, T. B., Gilchrist, M. D., Brien, S., Cusimano, M. D., and Marshall, S., “Characterization of Persistent Concussive Syndrome Through Injury Reconstruction and Finite Element Modelling,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. (in press).

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Impact sites as shown on an American football helmet that was used in Refs. [65,66,79]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Impact locations for the TBI dataset

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Impact locations for the PCS dataset

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In