0
Technical Brief

A New Approach to Determine Ligament Strain Using Polydimethylsiloxane Strain Gauges: Exemplary Measurements of the Anterolateral Ligament

[+] Author and Article Information
Martin Zens

Design of Microsystems,
Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK),
Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg,
Freiburg D-79110, Germany
e-mail: martin.zens@imtek.uni-freiburg.de

Johannes Ruhhammer, Frank Goldschmidtboeing, Peter Woias

Design of Microsystems,
Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK),
Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg,
Freiburg D-79110, Germany

Matthias J. Feucht, Herrmann O. Mayr, Philipp Niemeyer

Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery,
University Medical Center,
Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg,
Freiburg D-79095, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 4, 2014; final manuscript received October 14, 2014; accepted manuscript posted October 17, 2014; published online October 30, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Guy M. Genin.

J Biomech Eng 136(12), 124504 (Oct 30, 2014) (5 pages) Paper No: BIO-14-1315; doi: 10.1115/1.4028837 History: Received July 04, 2014; Revised October 14, 2014; Accepted October 17, 2014

A thorough understanding of ligament strains and behavior is necessary to create biomechanical models, comprehend trauma mechanisms, and surgically reconstruct those ligaments in a manner that restores a physiological performance. Measurement techniques and sensors are needed to conduct this data with high accuracy in an in vitro environment. In this work, we present a novel sensor device that is capable of continuously recording ligament strains with high resolution. The sensor principle of this biocompatible strain gauge may be used for in vitro measurements and can easily be applied to any ligament in the human body. The recently rediscovered anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee joint was chosen to display the capability of this novel sensor system. Three cadaver knees were tested to successfully demonstrate the concept of the sensor device and display first results regarding the elongation of the ALL during flexion/extension of the knee.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Beynnon, B. D., Fleming, B. C., Johnson, R. J., Nichols, C. E., Renström, P. A., and Pope, M. H., 1995, “Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain Behavior During Rehabilitation Exercises In Vivo,” Am. J. Sports Med., 23(1), pp. 24–34. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Withrow, T. J., Huston, L. J., Wojtys, E. M., and Ashton-Miller, J. A., 2006, “The Relationship Between Quadriceps Muscle Force, Knee Flexion, and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain in an In Vitro Simulated Jump Landing,” Am. J. Sports Med., 34(2), pp. 269–274. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fleming, B. C., Renstrom, P. A., Beynnon, B. D., Engstrom, B., Peura, G. D., Badger, G. J., and Johnson, R. J., 2001, “The Effect of Weightbearing and External Loading on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain,” J. Biomech., 34(2), pp. 163–170. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cerulli, G., Benoit, D., Lamontagne, M., Caraffa, A., and Liti, A., 2003, “In Vivo Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain Behaviour During a Rapid Deceleration Movement: Case Report,” Knee Surg. Sports Traumatol. Arthroscopy, 11(5), pp. 307–311. [CrossRef]
Incavo, S. J., Johnson, C. C., Beynnon, B. D., and Howe, J. G., 1994, “Posterior Cruciate Ligament Strain Biomechanics in Total Knee Arthroplasty,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 309, pp. 88–93. [PubMed]
Colville, M. R., Marder, R. A., Boyle, J. J., and Zarins, B., 1990, “Strain Measurement in Lateral Ankle Ligaments,” Am. J. Sports Med., 18(2), pp. 196–200. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Stefko, J. M., Tibone, J. E., Cawley, P. W., ElAttrache, N. E., and McMahon, P. J., 1997, “Strain of the Anterior Band of the Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament During Capsule Failure,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg., 6(5), pp. 473–479. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Andrews, J. R., Heggland, E. J., Fleisig, G. S., and Zheng, N., 2001, “Relationship of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Strain to Amount of Medial Olecranon Osteotomy,” Am. J. Sports Med., 29(6), pp. 716–721. [PubMed]
Seide, K., Schulz, A. P., and Wendlandt, R., 2013, “Vorrichtung zur Messung von Längenänderungen in Biologischem Gewebe,” DE Patent No. 102,011,122,809.
Kennedy, J. C., Hawkins, R. J., and Willis, R. B., 1977, “Strain Gauge Analysis of Knee Ligaments,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 129(11/12), pp. 225–229. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Draganich, L. F., and Vahey, J. W., 1990, “An in vitro Study of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain Induced by Quadriceps and Hamstrings Forces,” J. Orthop. Res, 8(1), pp. 57–63. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Berns, G. S., Hull, M. L., and Patterson, H. A., 1992, “Strain in the Anteromedial Bundle of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Under Combination Loading,” J. Orthop. Res., 10(2), pp. 167–176. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bach, J., Hull, M., and Patterson, H., 1997, “Direct Measurement of Strain in the Posterolateral Bundle of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament,” J. Biomech., 30(3), pp. 281–283. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Stone, J. E., Madsen, N. H., Milton, J. L., Swinson, W. F., and Turner, J. L., 1983, “Developments in the Design and Use of Liquid–Metal Strain Gages,” Exp. Mech., 23(2), pp. 129–139. [CrossRef]
Lu, N., Lu, C., Yang, S., and Rogers, J., 2012, “Highly Sensitive Skin-Mountable Strain Gauges Based Entirely on Elastomers,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 22(19), pp. 4044–4050. [CrossRef]
Kim, D.-H., Ghaffari, R., Lu, N., Wang, S., Lee, S. P., Keum, H., D'Angelo, R., Klinker, L., Su, Y., Lu, C., Kim, Y.-S., Ameen, A., Li, Y., Zhang, Y., de Graff, B., Hsu, Y.-Y., Liu, Z., Ruskin, J., Xu, L., Lu, C., Omenetto, F. G., Huang, Y., Mansour, M., Slepian, M. J., and Rogers, J. A., 2012, “Electronic Sensor and Actuator Webs for Large-Area Complex Geometry Cardiac Mapping and Therapy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 109(49), pp. 19910–19915. [CrossRef]
Vincent, J.-P., Magnussen, R. A., Gezmez, F., Uguen, A., Jacobi, M., Weppe, F., Al-Saati, M. F., Lustig, S., Demey, G., Servien, E., and Neyret, P., 2012, “The Anterolateral Ligament of the Human Knee: An Anatomic and Histologic Study,” Knee Surg. Sports Traumatol., Arthroscopy, 20(1), pp. 147–152. [CrossRef]
Ruhhammer, J., Zens, M., Goldschmidtboeing, F., Seifert, A., and Woias, P., Highly Elastic Conductive Polymeric MEMS (submitted).
Cherney, E. A., 2005, “Silicone Rubber Dielectrics Modified by Inorganic Fillers for Outdoor High Voltage Insulation Applications,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., 12(6), pp. 1108–1115. [CrossRef]
Zens, M., Ruhhammer, J., Goldschmidtboeing, F., Woias, P., Mayr, H., Niemeyer, P., and Bernstein, A., 2014, “Novel Measurement Technique for Knee Joint Laxities Using Polymeric Capacitive Strain Gauges,” 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA 2014), Lisbon, Portugal, June 11–12, pp. 1–6.
Claes, S., Vereecke, E., Maes, M., Victor, J., Verdonk, P., and Bellemans, J., 2013, “Anatomy of the Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee,” J. Anat., 223(4), pp. 321–328. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Noyes, F. R., and Grood, E. S., 1976, “The Strength of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament in Humans and Rhesus Monkeys,” J. Bone Joint Surg., 58(8), pp. 1074–1082.
Siegler, S., Block, J., and Schneck, C. D., 1988, “The Mechanical Characteristics of the Collateral Ligaments of the Human Ankle Joint,” Foot Ankle Int., 8(5), Apr., pp. 234–242. [CrossRef]
Fleming, B. C., Beynnon, B. D., Renstrom, P. A., Peura, G. D., Nichols, C. E., and Johnson, R. J., 1998, “The Strain Behavior of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament During Bicycling an In Vivo Study,” Am. J. Sports Med., 26(1), pp. 109–118. [PubMed]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

All polymeric strain gauge sensor device based on PDMS materials. Conductivity of the material is achieved by adding 10.6 wt.% carbon black particles (black), and a high permittivity is achieved through mixing the base polymer with 38.75 wt.% barium titanate (BaTiO3) (white) for encapsulation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

cad image of a measurement stage developed for highly accurate passive movement of a fixed knee joint using stepper motors. An x–y-rotational stage in combination with a C-shaped arc allows the simulation of knee joint movement in any physiological direction with precise reproducibility.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Exposure of the ALL. The ligament can clearly be distinguished from the iliotibial tract and the capsula of the knee joint as described by Claes et al. [21]. (b) Sensor strip mounted on the ALL using Loctite 4860®.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Cyclic loading of the sensor device in a linear stage. The sensor was stretched 1000 times at 2 mm/s. (b) Measurement curves of a sensor strip at 30% elongation and different speeds. (c) Measurement curves for subsequently increasing strains without history dependency at 0.2 mm/s.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Calibration curves and polynomial fit of a capacitive strain gauge used for the characterization of the ALL. The curves were recorded on a linear stage in 10 consecutive cycles showing no hysteresis and a negligible drift.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Averaged results from three cadaver knees (knee 1: 86 ♀, knee 2: 73 ♀, knee 3: 87 ♀) that were measured through the technique described in this work

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In