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Research Papers

Biomechanical Effect of Altered Lumbar Lordosis on Intervertebral Lumbar Joints During the Golf Swing: A Simulation Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Tae Soo Bae

Assistant Professor
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
Jungwon University,
85, Munmu-ro, Goesan-gun, Chungbuk,
Seoul 110-810, South Korea
e-mail: bmebae@jwu.ac.kr

Woong Cho

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Korea University,
145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu,
Seoul 110-810, South Korea
e-mail: w-cho@hanmail.com

Kwon Hee Kim

Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Korea University,
145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu,
Seoul 110-810, South Korea
e-mail: kwonhkim@korea.ac.kr

Soo Won Chae

Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Korea University,
145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu,
Seoul 110-810, South Korea
e-mail: swchae@korea.ac.kr

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 1, 2014; final manuscript received August 6, 2014; accepted manuscript posted August 28, 2014; published online September 11, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Joel D. Stitzel.

J Biomech Eng 136(11), 111005 (Sep 11, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: BIO-14-1001; doi: 10.1115/1.4028427 History: Received January 01, 2014; Revised August 06, 2014; Accepted August 28, 2014

Although the lumbar spine region is the most common site of injury in golfers, little research has been done on intervertebral loads in relation to the anatomical–morphological differences in the region. This study aimed to examine the biomechanical effects of anatomical–morphological differences in the lumbar lordosis on the lumbar spinal joints during a golf swing. The golf swing motions of ten professional golfers were analyzed. Using a subject-specific 3D musculoskeletal system model, inverse dynamic analyses were performed to compare the intervertebral load, the load on the lumbar spine, and the load in each swing phase. In the intervertebral load, the value was the highest at the L5–S1 and gradually decreased toward the T12. In each lumbar spine model, the load value was the greatest on the kypholordosis (KPL) followed by normal lordosis (NRL), hypolordosis (HPL), and excessive lordosis (EXL) before the impact phase. However, results after the follow-through (FT) phase were shown in reverse order. Finally, the load in each swing phase was greatest during the FT phase in all the lumbar spine models. The findings can be utilized in the training and rehabilitation of golfers to help reduce the risk of injury by considering individual anatomical–morphological characteristics.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Subject-specific musculoskeletal model during golf swing with three anatomical axes: AP, ML, and IS. Six-pair muscles related to lumbar spine motion around trunk were included: ① rectus abdominis, ② spinalis thoracis, ③ longissimus thoracis, ④ iliocostalis lumborum, ⑤ quadratus lumborum (L1), and ⑥ quadratus lumborum (L2).

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Fig. 2

Three-dimensional skeletal models with four curvatures of lumbar spine

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Fig. 3

Inverse dynamic analysis with 3D musculoskeletal model during golf swing (up) and biomechanical data focused on intervertebral lumbar joint from T12 to L1 were calculated (down)

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Fig. 4

Intervertebral joint force from T12 to S1 in views of three anatomical axes. In addition, all intervertebral joint loads were compared among four different lordosis models: EXL, NRL, HPL, and KPL. The AP shear joint forces were divided into the anterior (+) and posterior (−) direction and ML shear joint forces into the left (+) and right (−) direction in the anatomical posture. And lastly the IS joint forces were divided into compressive (+) and tensile (−) direction.

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Fig. 5

Joint moment at lumbar joint with respect to lateral bend, flexion–extension, and axial rotation for four different lordosis models. The lumbar joint moment in lateral bend had a positive value when the lumbar region curved left against the pelvis and a negative value when the lumbar region curved right against the pelvis. The lumbar joint moment in flexion–extension had a positive value when the lumbar region curved forward (flexion). The lumbar joint moment in axial rotation had a positive value during counter clockwise rotation.

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Fig. 6

Joint power at lumbar joint with respect to lateral bend, flexion–extension, and axial rotation for four different lordosis models. The positive value means the release of energy, and a negative value denotes absorption/storage of energy.

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Fig. 7

Summed muscle forces for right and left side of trunk for four different lordosis models

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