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Research Papers

Biomechanics of the Canine Mandible During Bone Transport Distraction Osteogenesis

[+] Author and Article Information
Uriel Zapata

Mechanical Engineering Department,
EAFIT University,
Medellin 050022, Colombia
e-mail: uzapata@eafit.edu.co

Paul C. Dechow

Baylor College of Dentistry,
Texas A&M University,
Dallas, TX 75246
e-mail: pdechow@bcd.tamhsc.edu

Ikuya Watanabe

Department of Dental and Biomedical
Materials Science,
Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science,
Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan
e-mail: ikuyaw@nagasaki-u.ac.jp

Mohammed E. Elsalanty

Department of Oral Biology and
Maxillofacial Surgery,
College of Dental Medicine,
Georgia Regents University,
Augusta, GA 30912
e-mail: melsalanty@gru.edu

Lynne A. Opperman

Baylor College of Dentistry,
Texas A&M University,
Dallas, TX 75246
e-mail: lopperman@bcd.tamhsc.edu

1Corresponding authors.

Manuscript received November 4, 2013; final manuscript received July 30, 2014; accepted manuscript posted August 27, 2014; published online September 19, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Joel D. Stitzel.

J Biomech Eng 136(11), 111011 (Sep 19, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: BIO-13-1518; doi: 10.1115/1.4028409 History: Received November 04, 2013; Revised July 30, 2014

This study compared biomechanical patterns between finite element models (FEMs) and a fresh dog mandible tested under molar and incisal physiological loads in order to clarify the effect of the bone transport distraction osteogenesis (BTDO) surgical process. Three FEMs of dog mandibles were built in order to evaluate the effects of BTDO. The first model evaluated the mandibular response under two physiological loads resembling bite processes. In the second model, a 5.0 cm bone defect was bridged with a bone transport reconstruction plate (BTRP). In the third model, new regenerated bony tissue was incorporated within the defect to mimic the surgical process without the presence of the device. Complementarily, a mandible of a male American foxhound dog was mechanically tested in the laboratory both in the presence and absence of a BTRP, and mechanical responses were measured by attaching rosettes to the bone surface of the mandible to validate the FEM predictions. The relationship between real and predicted values indicates that the stress patterns calculated using FEM are a valid predictor of the biomechanics of the BTDO procedures. The present study provides an interesting correlation between the stiffness of the device and the biomechanical response of the mandible affected for bone transport.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

In vitro models of the dog mandible placed on the frame. (a) Complete mandible tested in the laboratory under static vertical load on the left first molar to record the strains using rosettes. Rosettes 1, 3, and 4 are presented. (b) Canine mandible with the BTRP device bridging the created bone defect on the right side of the mandible.

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Fig. 2

Models of the dog mandible. (a) Fresh dissected mandible from the Beagle dog. (b) Computational 3D model of the mandible including teeth, cortical, and trabecular bone. (c) 3D-FEM of the mandible including its morphological structures.

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Fig. 3

3D-FEM of the dog mandible resembling the three medical conditions. (a) Complete mandible including cortical and trabecular bone, teeth, cartilage, and the symphysis. (b) 3D model of the resected mandible and the novel BTRP device bridging the defect (5 cm long). (c) 3D model of the reconstructed mandible including the new regenerated tissue. In the third case, the BTRP device was not included in order to simulate the postoperative process.

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Fig. 4

Vertical displacement (mm) obtained from computational and experimental models at the places that the loads were applied. C-M-M (complete-mandible-molar load), D-M-M (distracted-mandible-molar load), C-M-I (complete-mandible-incisal load), and D-M-I (distracted-mandible-incisal load).

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Fig. 5

Orientation of the principal strains obtained from the rosettes among the four experimental tests. The dashed line is associated with the complete model of the mandible (condition 1), whereas the solid line represents the presence of the BTRP device on the resected mandible (condition 2). (a) Molar force model and (b) incisor force model.

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Fig. 6

Numerical results from the FEMs for the 100 N load applied at the incisal position. The first column represents the model of the mandible without surgical intervention; the second column represents the mandible at the earliest bone transport stage, including the device; and the third column represents the mandible with the newly formed bone tissue 12 weeks after distraction. The first row represents the vertical deformation patterns, and the second row shows the Von Misses stress patterns.

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Fig. 7

Numerical results from the FEMs for the 256 N load applied at the molar position. The first column represents the model of the mandible without surgical intervention; the second column represents the mandible at the earliest bone transport stage, including the device; and the third column represents the mandible with the newly formed bone tissue 12 weeks after distraction. The first row represents the vertical deformation pattern, and the second row shows the Von Misses stress patterns.

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Fig. 8

Validation of the biomechanical result for BTDO using both computational and experimental results. Linear correlation between normal maximum strains recorded on the rosettes attached to the mandible and predicted maximum normal strains read from the FEMs.

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