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Research Papers

Head and Neck Response of a Finite Element Anthropomorphic Test Device and Human Body Model During a Simulated Rotary-Wing Aircraft Impact

[+] Author and Article Information
Nicholas A. White

Mem. ASME
Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University,
Center for Injury Biomechanics,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27101
e-mail: whiten@vt.edu

Kerry A. Danelson

Mem. ASME
Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University,
Center for Injury Biomechanics,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27101
e-mail: kdanelso@wakehealth.edu

F. Scott Gayzik

Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University,
Center for Injury Biomechanics,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27101
e-mail: sgayzik@wakehealth.edu

Joel D. Stitzel

Mem. ASME
Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University,
Center for Injury Biomechanics,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27101
e-mail: jstitzel@wakehealth.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 1, 2013; final manuscript received July 26, 2014; accepted manuscript posted August 1, 2014; published online September 4, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Brian D. Stemper.

J Biomech Eng 136(11), 111001 (Sep 04, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: BIO-13-1515; doi: 10.1115/1.4028133 History: Received November 01, 2013; Revised July 26, 2014; Accepted August 01, 2014

A finite element (FE) simulation environment has been developed to investigate aviator head and neck response during a simulated rotary-wing aircraft impact using both an FE anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and an FE human body model. The head and neck response of the ATD simulation was successfully validated against an experimental sled test. The majority of the head and neck transducer time histories received a CORrelation and Analysis (CORA) rating of 0.7 or higher, indicating good overall correlation. The human body model simulation produced a more biofidelic head and neck response than the ATD experimental test and simulation, including change in neck curvature. While only the upper and lower neck loading can be measured in the ATD, the shear force, axial force, and bending moment were reported for each level of the cervical spine in the human body model using a novel technique involving cross sections. This loading distribution provides further insight into the biomechanical response of the neck during a rotary-wing aircraft impact.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Positioning at the time of sled pulse initiation (t = 70 ms) for the (a) ATD and (b) GHBMC simulations

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Fig. 2

Midsagittal cut of the GHBMC head and neck with transverse cross sections indicated by the solid lines. The LCSYS for C1 and C7 is visualized, along with the cross section at the level of C5.

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Fig. 3

Midsagittal head rotation for the two FE simulations. Head rotation from the experimental test was not available for comparison.

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Fig. 4

Resultant head CG acceleration for the experimental test and simulations

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Fig. 5

Resultant chest acceleration for the experimental test and simulations

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Fig. 6

Upper neck AP shear force for the experimental test and simulations

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Fig. 7

Upper neck axial force for the experimental test and simulations

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Fig. 8

Upper neck bending moment for the experimental test and simulations

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Fig. 9

Lower neck AP shear force for the experimental test and simulations

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Fig. 10

Lower neck axial force for the experimental test and simulations

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Fig. 11

Lower neck bending moment for the experimental test and simulations

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Fig. 12

Cross-sectional AP shear force for each cervical level of the GHBMC simulation. The forces are reported in their respective LCSYS.

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Fig. 13

Cross-sectional axial force for each cervical level of the GHBMC simulation. The forces are reported in their respective LCSYS.

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Fig. 14

Cross-sectional bending moment for each cervical level of the GHBMC simulation. Each moment is reported about the CG of its LCSYS.

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Fig. 15

Incremental, midsagittal neck kinematics of the GHBMC simulation. The position of the local origin for each vertebra is plotted with respect to the C7 local origin at different points in time.

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