Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem, on pace to become the third leading cause of death worldwide by 2020. Moreover, emerging evidence linking repeated mild traumatic brain injury to long-term neurodegenerative disorders points out that TBI can be both an acute disorder and a chronic disease. We are at an important transition point in our understanding of TBI, as past work has generated significant advances in better protecting us against some forms of moderate and severe TBI. However, we still lack a clear understanding of how to study milder forms of injury, such as concussion, or new forms of TBI that can occur from primary blast loading. In this review, we highlight the major advances made in understanding the biomechanical basis of TBI. We point out opportunities to generate significant new advances in our understanding of TBI biomechanics, especially as it appears across the molecular, cellular, and whole organ scale.