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Research Papers

Numerical Simulation of Vertebral Artery Stenosis Treated With Different Stents

[+] Author and Article Information
Aike Qiao

Mem. ASME
College of Life Science and Bio-engineering,
Beijing University of Technology,
Beijing 100124, China
e-mail: qak@bjut.edu.cn

Zhanzhu Zhang

College of Life Science and Bio-engineering,
Beijing University of Technology,
Beijing 100124, China
e-mail: jsdxjwc@163.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Bioengineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 23, 2013; final manuscript received December 6, 2013; accepted manuscript posted December 12, 2013; published online March 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Dalin Tang.

J Biomech Eng 136(4), 041007 (Mar 24, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: BIO-13-1324; doi: 10.1115/1.4026229 History: Received July 23, 2013; Revised December 06, 2013; Accepted December 12, 2013

We sought to investigate the effects of endovascular stents with different links for treating stenotic vertebral artery and to determine the relationship between the shape of the link and in-stent restenosis (ISR). We also attempted to provide scientific guidelines for stent design and selection for clinical procedures. Models of three types of stent with different links (L-stent, V-stent, and S-stent) and an idealized stenotic vertebral artery were established. The deployment procedure for the stent in the stenotic vertebral artery was simulated for solid mechanics analysis. Next, the deformed models were extracted to construct the blood flow domain, and numerical simulations of the hemodynamics in these models were performed using the finite element method. The numerical results demonstrated that: (1) Compared with the L-stent and V-stent, the S-stent has a better flexibility and induces less stress in the stent strut. Furthermore, less stress is generated in the arterial wall. (2) Vascular straightening is scarcely influenced by the shape of the link, but it is closely related to the flexibility of the stent. (3) The S-stent has the smallest foreshortening among the three types of stents. (4) Compared with the V-stent and S-stent, the L-stent causes a smaller area with low wall shear stress, less blood stagnation area, and better blood flow close to the artery wall. From the viewpoint of the combination of solid mechanics and hemodynamics, the S-stent has better therapeutic effects because of its lower potential for inducing ISR and its better prospects in clinical applications compared with the L-stent and V-stent.

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Figures

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Fig. 4

Meshes for the solid mechanics simulation (left: local view of the stent and stenosis) and the hemodynamics simulation (right: local view of the cross section of stented lumen)

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Fig. 3

Inlet velocity waveform

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Fig. 6

Foreshortening of the stent

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Fig. 7

Contours of the strain in the vessel wall (the arrow marks the location of the maximum value)

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Fig. 2

The blood flow boundary surface reconstructed with the deformed surfaces of the deployed stents and arteries

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Fig. 1

Models of the artery (left) and the stents (right)

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Fig. 5

Straightening of the artery

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Fig. 8

Contours of Von Mises stress (left), axial stress (middle), and circumferential stress (right) in the L-stent (first row), V-stent (second row), and S-stent (third row) (the arrow marks the location of the maximum value)

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Fig. 9

Contours of the WSS using a scale of 0–10 Pa (upper) and using a scale of 0–30 Pa (lower)

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Fig. 10

Contours of OSI distributed on the vessel wall

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