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Research Papers

How Bone Tissue and Cells Experience Elevated Temperatures During Orthopaedic Cutting: An Experimental and Computational Investigation

[+] Author and Article Information
Eimear B. Dolan

Biomechanics Research Centre (BMEC),
Biomedical Engineering,
NUI Galway, Ireland
e-mail: e.dolan4@nuigalway.ie

Ted J. Vaughan

Biomechanics Research Centre (BMEC),
Biomedical Engineering,
NUI Galway, Ireland
e-mail: ted.vaughan@nuigalway.ie

Glen L. Niebur

Department of Aerospace
and Mechanical Engineering,
University of Notre Dame,
Notre Dame, IN 46556
e-mail: gniebur@nd.edu

Conor Casey

Stryker Ireland,
Carrigtwohill, Cork, Ireland
e-mail: Conor.casey@stryker.com

David Tallon

Stryker Ireland,
Carrigtwohill, Cork, Ireland
e-mail: David.tallon@stryker.com

Laoise M. McNamara

Biomechanics Research Centre (BMEC),
Biomedical Engineering,
NUI Galway, Ireland
e-mail: Laoise.mcnamara@nuigalway.ie

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Bioengineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. Manuscript received August 13, 2013; final manuscript received November 27, 2013; accepted manuscript posted December 9, 2013; published online February 5, 2014. Editor: Victor H. Barocas.

J Biomech Eng 136(2), 021019 (Feb 05, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: BIO-13-1362; doi: 10.1115/1.4026177 History: Received August 13, 2013; Revised November 27, 2013; Accepted December 09, 2013

During orthopaedic surgery elevated temperatures due to cutting can result in bone injury, contributing to implant failure or delayed healing. However, how resulting temperatures are experienced throughout bone tissue and cells is unknown. This study uses a combination of experiments (forward-looking infrared (FLIR)) and multiscale computational models to predict thermal elevations in bone tissue and cells. Using multiple regression analysis, analytical expressions are derived allowing a priori prediction of temperature distribution throughout bone with respect to blade geometry, feed-rate, distance from surface, and cooling time. This study offers an insight into bone thermal behavior, informing innovative cutting techniques that reduce cellular thermal damage.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental setup of ovine metatarsal clamped and cut with heavy duty surgical saw (left), and imaged using a FLIR thermal imaging technology (right) for the measurement of thermal elevations immediately after cutting. The white arrows represent torn periosteum on the surface of the specimen, the black circle is the cortical bone boundary, and the white circle is the marrow cavity.

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Fig. 2

Thermal lens microscopy of bovine cortical bone: (a) transmission image, and (b) thermal diffusivity plot where the scale is the thermal diffusivity (10−7 m2/s) and the area around a single cell (c) with cellular component, (d) with cellular material removed, and (e) with the area of low thermal diffusivity adjacent to the cell removed. Scale bar = 20 μm.

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Fig. 3

Multiscale modeling approach where the surface heat flux was applied to the global model (as indicated by broken arrows) based on the experimental investigation. The resulting nodal thermal elevations are applied to the more detailed geometry of the osteon and osteocyte submodels (described in Section 2.3).

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Fig. 4

Temperature elevations observed, experimentally and computationally, modeled on the cut bone surface as a result of 15 s continuous cutting at 150 mm/min and 40 s continuous cutting at 50 mm/min for 2 oscillating surgical saw blades

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Fig. 5

Global model of thermal elevations throughout the cortical bone component at six different locations for (a) blade A and (b) blade B at the 150 mm/min feed rate, and (c) blade A and (d) blade B at the 50 mm/min feed rate

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Fig. 6

Global model of the thermal distribution throughout bone tissue at the maximum temperature elevation for (a) blade A and (b) blade B at the 150 mm/min feed rate, and (c) blade A and (d) blade B at the 50 mm/min feed rate

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Fig. 7

Osteon submodel (a) demonstrating the dissipation of heat to the embedded cells (b), through cortical bone at 15 s. Cells located at surface, 75 μm and 150 μm back from the heated surface in the z-direction. The osteocyte lacuna submodel demonstrated the flow of heat into the embedded cell (c).

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