0
Research Papers

Finite Element Prediction of Transchondral Stress and Strain in the Human Hip

[+] Author and Article Information
Corinne R. Henak

Department of Bioengineering, and
Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute,
University of Utah,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112

Gerard A. Ateshian

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Columbia University,
New York, NY 10027

Jeffrey A. Weiss

Department of Bioengineering, and
Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, and
Department of Orthopedics,
University of Utah,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
e-mail: jeff.weiss@utah.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Bioengineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. Manuscript received July 19, 2013; final manuscript received October 27, 2013; accepted manuscript posted November 27, 2013; published online February 5, 2014. Editor: Beth Winkelstein.

J Biomech Eng 136(2), 021021 (Feb 05, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: BIO-13-1322; doi: 10.1115/1.4026101 History: Received July 19, 2013; Revised October 27, 2013; Accepted November 27, 2013

Cartilage fissures, surface fibrillation, and delamination represent early signs of hip osteoarthritis (OA). This damage may be caused by elevated first principal (most tensile) strain and maximum shear stress. The objectives of this study were to use a population of validated finite element (FE) models of normal human hips to evaluate the required mesh for converged predictions of cartilage tensile strain and shear stress, to assess the sensitivity to cartilage constitutive assumptions, and to determine the patterns of transchondral stress and strain that occur during activities of daily living. Five specimen-specific FE models were evaluated using three constitutive models for articular cartilage: quasilinear neo-Hookean, nonlinear Veronda Westmann, and tension-compression nonlinear ellipsoidal fiber distribution (EFD). Transchondral predictions of maximum shear stress and first principal strain were determined. Mesh convergence analysis demonstrated that five trilinear elements were adequate through the depth of the cartilage for precise predictions. The EFD model had the stiffest response with increasing strains, predicting the largest peak stresses and smallest peak strains. Conversely, the neo-Hookean model predicted the smallest peak stresses and largest peak strains. Models with neo-Hookean cartilage predicted smaller transchondral gradients of maximum shear stress than those with Veronda Westmann and EFD models. For FE models with EFD cartilage, the anterolateral region of the acetabulum had larger peak maximum shear stress and first principal strain than all other anatomical regions, consistent with observations of cartilage damage in disease. Results demonstrate that tension-compression nonlinearity of a continuous fiber distribution exhibiting strain induced anisotropy incorporates important features that have large effects on predictions of transchondral stress and strain. This population of normal hips provides baseline data for future comparisons to pathomorphologic hips. This approach can be used to evaluate these and other mechanical variables in the human hip and their potential role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA).

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Carter, D. R., Beaupré, G. S., Wong, M., Smith, R. L., Andriacchi, T. P., and Schurman, D. J., 2004, “The Mechanobiology of Articular Cartilage Development and Degeneration,” Clin. Orthopaed. Related Res., 427(Suppl.), pp. S69–S77. [CrossRef]
Guilak, F., Fermor, B., Keefe, F. J., Kraus, V. B., Olson, S. A., Pisetsky, D. S., Setton, L. A., and Weinberg, J. B., 2004, “The Role of Biomechanics and Inflammation in Cartilage Injury and Repair,” Clin. Orthopaed. Related Res., 423, pp. 17–26. [CrossRef]
Atkinson, T. S., Haut, R. C., and Altiero, N. J., 1998, “Impact-Induced Fissuring of Articular Cartilage: An Investigation of Failure Criteria,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 120(2), pp. 181–187. [CrossRef]
Haut, R. C., Ide, T. M., and De Camp, C. E., 1995, “Mechanical Responses of the Rabbit Patello-Femoral Joint to Blunt Impact,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 117(4), pp. 402–408. [CrossRef]
Bader, D. L., Salter, D. M., and Chowdhury, T. T., 2011, “Biomechanical Influence of Cartilage Homeostasis in Health and Disease,” Arthritis, 2011, p. 979032. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Grodzinsky, A. J., Levenston, M. E., Jin, M., and Frank, E. H., 2000, “Cartilage Tissue Remodeling in Response to Mechanical Forces,” Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 2, pp. 691–713. [CrossRef]
Guilak, F., 2011, “Biomechanical Factors in Osteoarthritis,” Best Pract. Res. Clin. Rheum., 25(6), pp. 815–823. [CrossRef]
Atkinson, P. J., and Haut, R. C., 2001, “Impact Responses of the Flexed Human Knee Using a Deformable Impact Interface,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 123(3), pp. 205–211. [CrossRef]
Wilson, W., Van Burken, C., Van Donkelaar, C., Buma, P., Van Rietbergen, B., and Huiskes, R., 2006, “Causes of Mechanically Induced Collagen Damage in Articular Cartilage,” J. Orthopaed. Res., 24(2), pp. 220–228. [CrossRef]
Maniwa, S., Nishikori, T., Furukawa, S., Kajitani, K., and Ochi, M., 2001, “Alteration of Collagen Network and Negative Charge of Articular Cartilage Surface in the Early Stage of Experimental Osteoarthritis,” Arch. Orthopaed. Trauma Surg., 121(4), pp. 181–185. [CrossRef]
Arokoski, J. P., Jurvelin, J. S., Vaatainen, U., and Helminen, H. J., 2000, “Normal and Pathological Adaptations of Articular Cartilage to Joint Loading,” Scan. J. Med. Sci. Sports, 10(4), pp. 186–198. [CrossRef]
Radin, E. L., Martin, R. B., Burr, D. B., Caterson, B., Boyd, R. D., and Goodwin, C., 1984, “Effects of Mechanical Loading on the Tissues of the Rabbit Knee,” J. Orthopaed. Res., 2(3), pp. 221–234. [CrossRef]
Thompson, R. C.Jr., Oegema, T. R.Jr., Lewis, J. L., and Wallace, L., 1991, “Osteoarthrotic Changes After Acute Transarticular Load. An Animal Model,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. Vol., 73(7), pp. 990–1001.
Anderson, L. A., Peters, C. L., Park, B. B., Stoddard, G. J., Erickson, J. A., and Crim, J. R., 2009, “Acetabular Cartilage Delamination in Femoroacetabular Impingement. Risk Factors and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnosis,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. Vol., 91(2), pp. 305–313. [CrossRef]
Ateshian, G. A., Lai, W. M., Zhu, W. B., and Mow, V. C., 1994, “An Asymptotic Solution for the Contact of Two Biphasic Cartilage Layers,” J. Biomech., 27(11), pp. 1347–1360. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ateshian, G. A., and Wang, H., 1995, “A Theoretical Solution for the Frictionless Rolling Contact of Cylindrical Biphasic Articular Cartilage Layers,” J. Biomech., 28(11), pp. 1341–1355. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Beck, M., Kalhor, M., Leunig, M., and Ganz, R., 2005, “Hip Morphology Influences the Pattern of Damage to the Acetabular Cartilage: Femoroacetabular Impingement as a Cause of Early Osteoarthritis of the Hip,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Brit. Vol., 87(7), pp. 1012–1018. [CrossRef]
Askew, M., and Mow, V., 1978, “The Biomechanical Function of the Collagen Fibril Ultrastructure of Articular Cartilage,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 100(3), p. 105–115. [CrossRef]
Broom, N. D., Oloyede, A., Flachsmann, R., and Hows, M., 1996, “Dynamic Fracture Characteristics of the Osteochondral Junction Undergoing Shear Deformation,” Med. Eng. Phys., 18(5), pp. 396–404. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Flachsmann, E. R., Broom, N. D., and Oloyede, A., 1995, “A Biomechanical Investigation of Unconstrained Shear Failure of the Osteochondral Region under Impact Loading,” Clin. Biomech., 10(3), pp. 156–165. [CrossRef]
Flachsmann, R., Broom, N. D., Hardy, A. E., and Moltschaniwskyj, G., 2000, “Why Is the Adolescent Joint Particularly Susceptible to Osteochondral Shear Fracture?,” Clin. Orthopaed. Related Res., 381, pp. 212–221. [CrossRef]
Silyn-Roberts, H., and Broom, N. D., 1990, “Fracture Behaviour of Cartilage-on-Bone in Response to Repeated Impact Loading,” Connective Tissue Res., 24(2), pp. 143–156. [CrossRef]
Meachim, G., and Bentley, G., 1978, “Horizontal Splitting in Patellar Articular Cartilage,” Arthritis Rheum., 21(6), pp. 669–674. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gosvig, K. K., Jacobsen, S., Sonne-Holm, S., Palm, H., and Troelsen, A., 2010, “Prevalence of Malformations of the Hip Joint and Their Relationship to Sex, Groin Pain, and Risk of Osteoarthritis: A Population-Based Survey,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. Vol., 92(5), pp. 1162–1169. [CrossRef]
Anderson, A. E., Ellis, B. J., Maas, S. A., Peters, C. L., and Weiss, J. A., 2008, “Validation of Finite Element Predictions of Cartilage Contact Pressure in the Human Hip Joint,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 130(5), p. 051008. [CrossRef]
Anderson, A. E., Ellis, B. J., Maas, S. A., and Weiss, J. A., 2010, “Effects of Idealized Joint Geometry on Finite Element Predictions of Cartilage Contact Stresses in the Hip,” J. Biomech., 43(7), pp. 1351–1357. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Brown, T. D., and Digioia, A. M., 3rd, 1984, “A Contact-Coupled Finite Element Analysis of the Natural Adult Hip,” J. Biomech., 17(6), pp. 437–448. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chegini, S., Beck, M., and Ferguson, S. J., 2009, “The Effects of Impingement and Dysplasia on Stress Distributions in the Hip Joint During Sitting and Walking: A Finite Element Analysis,” J. Orthopaed. Res., 27(2), pp. 195–201. [CrossRef]
Harris, M. D., Anderson, A. E., Henak, C. R., Ellis, B. J., Peters, C. L., and Weiss, J. A., 2012, “Finite Element Prediction of Cartilage Contact Stresses in Normal Human Hips,” J. Orthopaed. Res., 30(7), pp. 1133–1139. [CrossRef]
Henak, C. R., Ellis, B. J., Harris, M. D., Anderson, A. E., Peters, C. L., and Weiss, J. A., 2011, “Role of the Acetabular Labrum in Load Support across the Hip Joint,” J. Biomech., 44(12), pp. 2201–2206. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rapperport, D. J., Carter, D. R., and Schurman, D. J., 1985, “Contact Finite Element Stress Analysis of the Hip Joint,” J. Orthopaed. Res., 3(4), pp. 435–446. [CrossRef]
Russell, M. E., Shivanna, K. H., Grosland, N. M., and Pedersen, D. R., 2006, “Cartilage Contact Pressure Elevations in Dysplastic Hips: A Chronic Overload Model,” J. Orthopaed. Surg. Res., 1(6). [CrossRef]
Wei, H. W., Sun, S. S., Jao, S. H., Yeh, C. R., and Cheng, C. K., 2005, “The Influence of Mechanical Properties of Subchondral Plate, Femoral Head and Neck on Dynamic Stress Distribution of the Articular Cartilage,” Med. Eng. Phys., 27(4), pp. 295–304. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Henak, C. R., Kapron, A. L., Anderson, A. E., Ellis, B. J., Maas, S. A., and Weiss, J. A., 2013, “Specimen-Specific Predictions of Contact Stress Under Physiological Loading in the Human Hip: Validation and Sensitivity Studies,” Biomech. Model Mechanobiol. [CrossRef]
Buckley, M. R., Gleghorn, J. P., Bonassar, L. J., and Cohen, I., 2008, “Mapping the Depth Dependence of Shear Properties in Articular Cartilage,” J. Biomech., 41(11), pp. 2430–2437. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chen, A. C., Bae, W. C., Schinagl, R. M., and Sah, R. L., 2001, “Depth- and Strain-Dependent Mechanical and Electromechanical Properties of Full-Thickness Bovine Articular Cartilage in Confined Compression,” J. Biomech., 34(1), pp. 1–12. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Huang, C. Y., Soltz, M. A., Kopacz, M., Mow, V. C., and Ateshian, G. A., 2003, “Experimental Verification of the Roles of Intrinsic Matrix Viscoelasticity and Tension-Compression Nonlinearity in the Biphasic Response of Cartilage,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 125(1), pp. 84–93. [CrossRef]
Huang, C. Y., Stankiewicz, A., Ateshian, G. A., and Mow, V. C., 2005, “Anisotropy, Inhomogeneity, and Tension-Compression Nonlinearity of Human Glenohumeral Cartilage in Finite Deformation,” J. Biomech., 38(4), pp. 799–809. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mak, A. F., 1986, “The Apparent Viscoelastic Behavior of Articular Cartilage–the Contributions From the Intrinsic Matrix Viscoelasticity and Interstitial Fluid Flows,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 108(2), pp. 123–130. [CrossRef]
Mow, V. C., and Guo, X. E., 2002, “Mechano-Electrochemical Properties of Articular Cartilage: Their Inhomogeneities and Anisotropies,” Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 4(1), pp. 175–209. [CrossRef]
Mow, V. C., Kuei, S. C., Lai, W. M., and Armstrong, C. G., 1980, “Biphasic Creep and Stress Relaxation of Articular Cartilage in Compression? Theory and Experiments,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 102(1), pp. 73–84. [CrossRef]
Schinagl, R. M., Gurskis, D., Chen, A. C., and Sah, R. L., 1997, “Depth-Dependent Confined Compression Modulus of Full-Thickness Bovine Articular Cartilage,” J. Orthopaed. Res., 15(4), pp. 499–506. [CrossRef]
Bachrach, N. M., Mow, V. C., and Guilak, F., 1998, “Incompressibility of the Solid Matrix of Articular Cartilage Under High Hydrostatic Pressures,” J. Biomech., 31(5), pp. 445–451. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ateshian, G. A., Ellis, B. J., and Weiss, J. A., 2007, “Equivalence Between Short-Time Biphasic and Incompressible Elastic Material Responses,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 129(3), pp. 405–412. [CrossRef]
Wong, M., Ponticiello, M., Kovanen, V., and Jurvelin, J. S., 2000, “Volumetric Changes of Articular Cartilage During Stress Relaxation in Unconfined Compression,” J. Biomech., 33(9), pp. 1049–1054. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Armstrong, C. G., and Mow, V. C., 1982, “Variations in the Intrinsic Mechanical Properties of Human Articular Cartilage With Age, Degeneration, and Water Content,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. Vol., 64(1), pp. 88–94.
Chahine, N. O., Wang, C. C., Hung, C. T., and Ateshian, G. A., 2004, “Anisotropic Strain-Dependent Material Properties of Bovine Articular Cartilage in the Transitional Range From Tension to Compression,” J. Biomech., 37(8), pp. 1251–1261. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kempson, G. E., Muir, H., Pollard, C., and Tuke, M., 1973, “The Tensile Properties of the Cartilage of Human Femoral Condyles Related to the Content of Collagen and Glycosaminoglycans,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 297(2), pp. 456–472. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ateshian, G. A., Rajan, V., Chahine, N. O., Canal, C. E., and Hung, C. T., 2009, “Modeling the Matrix of Articular Cartilage Using a Continuous Fiber Angular Distribution Predicts Many Observed Phenomena,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 131(6), p. 061003. [CrossRef]
Bergmann, G., Deuretzbacher, G., Heller, M., Graichen, F., Rohlmann, A., Strauss, J., and Duda, G. N., 2001, “Hip Contact Forces and Gait Patterns From Routine Activities,” J. Biomech., 34(7), pp. 859–871. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Puso, M. A., Maker, B. N., Ferencz, R. M., and Hallquist, J. O., 2007, “Nike3d: A Nonlinear, Implicit, Three-Dimensional Finite Element Code for Solid and Structural Mechanics,” US Dept of Energy, Washington, DC. Report No. UCRL-MA-105268-SUM.
Maas, S., Rawlins, D., and Weiss, J., 2012, “Postview: Finite Element Post-Processing,” Musculoskeletal Research Laboratories. Available at: http://mrl.sci.utah.edu/software/postview
Veronda, D. R., and Westmann, R. A., 1970, “Mechanical Characterization of Skin-Finite Deformations,” J. Biomech., 3(1), pp. 111–124. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Puso, M. A., 2000, “A Highly Efficient Enhanced Assumed Strain Physically Stabilized Hexahedral Element,” Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 49(8), pp. 1029–1064. [CrossRef]
Maas, S., Rawlins, D., Weiss, J., and Ateshian, G., 2011, Febio: Theory Manual, Musculoskeletal Research Laboratories, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.
Ateshian, G. A., 2007, “Anisotropy of Fibrous Tissues in Relation to the Distribution of Tensed and Buckled Fibers,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 129(2), pp. 240–249. [CrossRef]
Henak, C. R., Anderson, A. E., and Weiss, J. A., 2013, “Subject-Specific Analysis of Joint Contact Mechanics: Application to the Study of Osteoarthritis and Surgical Planning,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng.135(2), p. 021003. [CrossRef]
Anderson, A. E., Peters, C. L., Tuttle, B. D., and Weiss, J. A., 2005, “Subject-Specific Finite Element Model of the Pelvis: Development, Validation and Sensitivity Studies,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 127(3), pp. 364–373. [CrossRef]
Dalstra, M., and Huiskes, R., 1995, “Load Transfer Across the Pelvic Bone,” J. Biomech., 28(6), pp. 715–724. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Athanasiou, K. A., Agarwal, A., and Dzida, F. J., 1994, “Comparative Study of the Intrinsic Mechanical Properties of the Human Acetabular and Femoral Head Cartilage,” J. Orthopaed. Res., 12(3), pp. 340–349. [CrossRef]
Henak, C. R., Carruth, E. D., Anderson, A. E., Harris, M. D., Ellis, B. J., Peters, C. L., and Weiss, J. A., 2013, “Finite Element Predictions of Cartilage Contact Mechanics in Hips With Retroverted Acetabula,” OARS Osteoarth. Cartilage, 21(10), pp. 1522–1529. [CrossRef]
Finner, H., 1993, “On a Monotonicity Problem in Step-Down Multiple Test Procedures,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 88(423), pp. 920–923. [CrossRef]
Ferguson, S. J., Bryant, J. T., and Ito, K., 2001, “The Material Properties of the Bovine Acetabular Labrum,” J. Orthopaed. Res., 19(5), pp. 887–896. [CrossRef]
Athanasiou, K. A., Agarwal, A., Muffoletto, A., Dzida, F. J., Constantinides, G., and Clem, M., 1995, “Biomechanical Properties of Hip Cartilage in Experimental Animal Models,” Clin. Orthopaed. Related Res., 316, pp. 254–266.
Soltz, M. A., and Ateshian, G. A., 2000, “A Conewise Linear Elasticity Mixture Model for the Analysis of Tension-Compression Nonlinearity in Articular Cartilage,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 122(6), pp. 576–586. [CrossRef]
Soulhat, J., Buschmann, M. D., and Shirazi-Adl, A., 1999, “A Fibril-Network-Reinforced Biphasic Model of Cartilage in Unconfined Compression,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 121(3), pp. 340–347. [CrossRef]
Bullough, P., Goodfellow, J., and O'Conner, J., 1973, “The Relationship Between Degenerative Changes and Load-Bearing in the Human Hip,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Brit. Vol., 55(4), pp. 746–758.
Harrison, M., Schajowicz, F., and Trueta, J., 1953, “Osteoarthritis of the Hip: A Study of the Nature and Evolution of the Disease,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Brit. Vol., 35(4), pp. 598–626.
Byers, P. D., Contepomi, C. A., and Farkas, T. A., 1970, “A Post Mortem Study of the Hip Joint. Including the Prevalence of the Features of the Right Side,” Ann. Rheum. Dis., 29(1), pp. 15–31. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Byers, P. D., Contepomi, C. A., and Farkas, T. A., 1976, “Post-Mortem Study of the Hip Joint. II. Histological Basis for Limited and Progressive Cartilage Alterations,” Ann. Rheum. Dis., 35(2), pp. 114–121. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gu, K. B., and Li, L. P., 2011, “A Human Knee Joint Model Considering Fluid Pressure and Fiber Orientation in Cartilages and Menisci,” Med. Eng. Phys., 33(4), pp. 497–503. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Halonen, K. S., Mononen, M. E., Jurvelin, J. S., Toyras, J., and Korhonen, R. K., 2013, “Importance of Depth-Wise Distribution of Collagen and Proteoglycans in Articular Cartilage–a 3D Finite Element Study of Stresses and Strains in Human Knee Joint,” J. Biomech., 46(6), pp. 1184–1192. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mononen, M. E., Mikkola, M. T., Julkunen, P., Ojala, R., Nieminen, M. T., Jurvelin, J. S., and Korhonen, R. K., 2012, “Effect of Superficial Collagen Patterns and Fibrillation of Femoral Articular Cartilage on Knee Joint Mechanics-a 3D Finite Element Analysis,” J. Biomech., 45(3), pp. 579–587. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rasanen, L. P., Mononen, M. E., Nieminen, M. T., Lammentausta, E., Jurvelin, J. S., and Korhonen, R. K., 2013, “Implementation of Subject-Specific Collagen Architecture of Cartilage Into a 2D Computational Model of a Knee Joint–Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative (Oai),” J. Orthopaed. Res., 31(1), pp. 10–22. [CrossRef]
Shirazi, R., Shirazi-Adl, A., and Hurtig, M., 2008, “Role of Cartilage Collagen Fibrils Networks in Knee Joint Biomechanics Under Compression,” J. Biomech., 41(16), pp. 3340–3348. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Dabiri, Y., and Li, L. P., 2013, “Altered Knee Joint Mechanics in Simple Compression Associated With Early Cartilage Degeneration,” Computat. Math. Meth. Med., 2013, p. 862903.
Krishnan, R., Park, S., Eckstein, F., and Ateshian, G. A., 2003, “Inhomogeneous Cartilage Properties Enhance Superficial Interstitial Fluid Support and Frictional Properties, But Do Not Provide a Homogeneous State of Stress,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 125(5), pp. 569–577. [CrossRef]
Garcia, J. J., Altiero, N. J., and Haut, R. C., 1998, “An Approach for the Stress Analysis of Transversely Isotropic Biphasic Cartilage Under Impact Load,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 120(5), pp. 608–613. [CrossRef]
Donzelli, P. S., Spilker, R. L., Ateshian, G. A., and Mow, V. C., 1999, “Contact Analysis of Biphasic Transversely Isotropic Cartilage Layers and Correlations With Tissue Failure,” J. Biomech., 32(10), pp. 1037–1047. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wilson, W., Van Rietbergen, B., Van Donkelaar, C. C., and Huiskes, R., 2003, “Pathways of Load-Induced Cartilage Damage Causing Cartilage Degeneration in the Knee After Meniscectomy,” J. Biomech., 36(6), pp. 845–851. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Krishnan, R., Kopacz, M., and Ateshian, G. A., 2004, “Experimental Verification of the Role of Interstitial Fluid Pressurization in Cartilage Lubrication,” J. Orthopaed. Res., 22(3), pp. 565–570. [CrossRef]
Abraham, C. L., Maas, S. A., Weiss, J. A., Ellis, B. J., Peters, C. L., and Anderson, A. E., 2013, “A New Discrete Element Analysis Method for Predicting Hip Joint Contact Stresses,” J. Biomech., 46(6), pp. 1121–1127. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Guterl, C. C., Gardner, T. R., Rajan, V., Ahmad, C. S., Hung, C. T., and Ateshian, G. A., 2009, “Two-Dimensional Strain Fields on the Cross-Section of the Human Patellofemoral Joint Under Physiological Loading,” J. Biomech., 42(9), pp. 1275–1281. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Li, J., Stewart, T. D., Jin, Z., Wilcox, R. K., and Fisher, J., 2013, “The Influence of Size, Clearance, Cartilage Properties, Thickness and Hemiarthroplasty on the Contact Mechanics of the Hip Joint With Biphasic Layers,” J. Biomech. 46(10), pp. 1641–1647. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Miozzari, H. H., Clark, J. M., Jacob, H. A., Von Rechenberg, B., and Notzli, H. P., 2004, “Effects of Removal of the Acetabular Labrum in a Sheep Hip Model,” OARS Osteoarth. Cartilage, 12(5), pp. 419–430. [CrossRef]
Konrath, G. A., Hamel, A. J., Olson, S. A., Bay, B., and Sharkey, N. A., 1998, “The Role of the Acetabular Labrum and the Transverse Acetabular Ligament in Load Transmission in the Hip,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. Vol., 80(12), pp. 1781–1788.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

E1 and τmax results on the acetabulum in the EFD models of one specimen. (a) Lateral view of the acetabulum with the six anatomic regions used for analysis. (b) E1 at the articular surface. (c) τmax at the osteochondral interface.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Results in six anatomical regions on the acetabular cartilage. (a) Peak τmax at the osteochondral interface. (b) Average τmax at the osteochondral interface. (c) Peak E1 at the articular surface. (d) Average E1 at the articular surface. At high stress values, the EFD models predicted the largest stresses. A high strain values, the neo-Hookean models predicted the largest strains. Error bars = standard deviation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Results through the depth of the femoral cartilage during AH. (a) τmax at the location of the osteochondral peak. (b) E1 at the location of the articular peak. While τmax near the osteochondral interface was larger in the EFD model, it was larger in the neo-Hookean (nH) models near the articular surface. For all constitutive models, E1 peaked just below the articular surface. * indicates differences between EFD and VW, ‡ indicates differences between EFD and nH, and § indicates differences between VW and nH. Error bars = standard deviation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cut planes for femoral E1 as reported in Fig. 6(b). Each column is for one specimen. The top row indicates the location of the cut planes. The next three rows are the nH, VW, and EFD model results, respectively. The arrows in each cut figure indicate the location and direction of sampling.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

E1 and τmax in six anatomical regions on the acetabulum the EFD models. (a) Peak τmax at the osteochondral interface. (b) Average τmax at the osteochondral interface. (c) Peak E1 at the articular surface. (d) Average E1 at the articular surface. ‡ indicates p ≤ 0.05 against all other regions. † indicates p ≤ 0.05 against all other regions except the one with the same symbol in the same panel. * indicates p ≤ 0.05 against the listed region. Error bars = standard deviation. There were distinct regional differences in E1 and τmax, with the largest values occurring the AL region and the smallest values occurring in the PM region.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

τmax in the normal subject model without the labrum compared to the normal subject model with the labrum. (a) Acetabular τmax results at the articular surface, at the osteochondral interface and transchondrally at the location of the osteochondral cartilage peak. Note that the location of the osteochondral peak is identical in the models with and without the labrum. (b) Transchondral τmax for the both the acetabular and femoral cartilage in the model without the labrum (“cartilage”) and the model with the labrum (“both”). While the acetabular labrum decreased the magnitudes of τmax, articular, osteochondral, and transchondral τmax patterns were relatively unaffected. The acetabular labrum had a similar effect on predicted E1.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Uniaxial stress response of the three constitutive models. Experimental data are shown. At small strains (stretch values near 1.0), there were minimal differences between the three models. At larger tensile strains, there were drastic differences. The EFD model was the stiffest at higher levels of stretch due to the fiber contribution to the response, likely resulting in both the higher τmax and lower E1 at large magnitudes (Fig. 5). In compression (stretch values less than 1), the EFD and VW constitutive models predicted nearly identical responses. Error bars = standard deviation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Representative FE model and mesh convergence analysis. (a) View of the whole joint. The red box indicates the region shown in the remaining images. Lines in the remaining images show discretization. (b) FE model with three elements through the cartilage thickness. (c) FE model with four elements through the cartilage thickness. (d) FE model with five elements through the cartilage thickness (this was the converged mesh density). (e) FE model with six elements through the cartilage thickness.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In