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Technical Brief

Simulation and Evaluation of a Bone Sawing Procedure for Orthognathic Surgery Based on an Experimental Force Model

[+] Author and Article Information
Lin Yanping

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Institute of Biomedical Manufacturing
and Life Quality Engineering,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: yanping_lin@sjtu.edu.cn

Yu Dedong, Wang Xudong, Shen Guofang

Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital,
Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
School of Medicine,
Shanghai 200011, China

Chen Xiaojun, Wang Chengtao

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Institute of Biomedical Manufacturing
and Life Quality Engineering,
Shanghai 200240, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Bioengineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. Manuscript received March 24, 2013; final manuscript received October 28, 2013; accepted manuscript posted November 25, 2013; published online February 13, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Guy M. Genin.

J Biomech Eng 136(3), 034501 (Feb 13, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: BIO-13-1155; doi: 10.1115/1.4026104 History: Received March 24, 2013; Revised October 28, 2013; Accepted November 25, 2013

Bone sawing is widely used in orthognathic surgery to correct maxillary deformities. Successful execution of bone sawing requires a high level of dexterity and experience. A virtual reality (VR) surgical simulator can provide a safe, cost-effective, and repeatable training method. In this study, we developed a VR training simulator with haptic functions to simulate bone-sawing force, which was generated by the experimental force model. Ten human skulls were obtained in this study for the determination of surgical bone-sawing force. Using a 5-DOF machining center and a micro-reciprocating saw, bone specimens with different bone density were sawed at different feed rates (20, 40, and 60 mm/min) and spindle speeds (9800, 11,200 and 12,600 cycles per minute). The sawing forces were recorded with a piezoelectric dynamometer and a signal acquisition system. Linear correlation analysis of all experimental data indicates that there were significant positive linear correlations between bone-sawing force and bone density and tool feed rate and a moderate negative linear correlation with tool spindle rate. By performing multiple regression analysis, the prediction models for the bone-sawing procedure were determined. By employing Omega.6 as a haptic device, a medical simulator for the Lefort I osteotomy was developed based on an experimental force model. Comparison of the force-time curve acquired through experiments and the curve computed from the simulator indicate that the obtained forces based on the experimental force model and the acquired data had the same trend for the bone-sawing procedure of orthognathic surgery.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Ten fresh maxillae were stripped of soft tissue

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Fig. 2

The bone-sawing experimental platform: the instrument driver drove the saw at a high spindle speed and the 5-DOF machining center held and moved the saw at a given feed rate while the Kistler9256 dynamometer recorded the sawing forces

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Fig. 3

A representative level II specimen bone-sawing force at a 40 mm/min feed rate and an 11,200 cpm spindle speed

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Fig. 4

Force calculation of the bone-sawing procedure for two consecutive steps

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Fig. 5

The training simulator employing Omega.6 as the haptic device and the Display 300 as the stereo display

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Fig. 6

Simulation of the bone-sawing procedure for the Lefort I osteotomy

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Fig. 7

The Lefort I osteotomy in specimen 4

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Fig. 8

(a) The acquired sawing forces of Lefort I osteotomy in a bone specimen; (b) The computed sawing forces of the Lefort I osteotomy in this simulator

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Fig. 9

Maxilla regions with different bone thickness in the Lefort I osteotomy: section A included the Pterygo-palatin suture, section B included the canine fossa and maxillary alveolar ridge, and section C included the processus frontalis maxillae

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