Research Papers

Development of a Hip Joint Model for Finite Volume Simulations

[+] Author and Article Information
P. Cardiff

School of Mechanical and
Materials Engineering,
University College Dublin,
Belfield, D4,
Dublin, Ireland
e-mail: philip.cardiff@ucd.ie

A. Karač

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Zenica,
Fakultetska 1, 72000 Zenica,
Bosnia and Herzegovina

A. Ivanković

School of Mechanical and
Materials Engineering,
University College Dublin,
Belfield, D4,
Dublin, Ireland

The phrase in silico, coined in 1989 as an analogy to the Latin phrases in vivo and in vitro, is an expression meaning “performed on computer or via computer simulation.”

In this context, castellated refers to the resemblance of the mesh to the battlements on top of a medieval castle.

The OpenFOAMextendedLeastSquares gradient scheme is employed as it assumes nonorthogonal boundary cells, unlike the leastSquares gradient scheme.

The OpenFOAM GAMG linear solver has been employed, where the coarsest solution grid is set to the square root of the average number of cells on each processor.

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Bioengineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 12, 2013; final manuscript received July 1, 2013; accepted manuscript posted October 19, 2013; published online December 3, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Tammy Haut Donahue.

J Biomech Eng 136(1), 011006 (Dec 03, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: BIO-13-1075; doi: 10.1115/1.4025776 History: Received February 12, 2013; Revised July 01, 2013; Accepted October 19, 2013

This paper establishes a procedure for numerical analysis of a hip joint using the finite volume method. Patient-specific hip joint geometry is segmented directly from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging datasets and the resulting bone surfaces are processed into a form suitable for volume meshing. A high resolution continuum tetrahedral mesh has been generated, where a sandwich model approach is adopted; the bones are represented as a stiffer cortical shells surrounding more flexible cancellous cores. Cartilage is included as a uniform thickness extruded layer and the effect of layer thickness is investigated. To realistically position the bones, gait analysis has been performed giving the 3D positions of the bones for the full gait cycle. Three phases of the gait cycle are examined using a finite volume based custom structural contact solver implemented in open-source software OpenFOAM.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Volume conservative smoothing of the bone surfaces

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Fig. 2

Final processed bone exterior surfaces embedded in a frontal CT slice

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Fig. 3

Hip joint model material distribution showing a shell of cortical bone surrounding a core of cancellous bone, with a layer of cartilage on the articular surfaces. Cells have been removed for visualization

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Fig. 4

Gait cycle data processed with visualizeGaitData utility

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Fig. 6

Boundary conditions

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Fig. 7

Typical model solution convergence

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Fig. 9

Contact pressures of the toe-off & heel-strike models (in MPa)



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