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Research Papers

Nanoparticle Mass Transfer From Lung Airways to Systemic Regions—Part I: Whole-Lung Aerosol Dynamics

[+] Author and Article Information
Arun V. Kolanjiyil

Department of Mechanical &
Aerospace Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27695

Clement Kleinstreuer

Department of Mechanical &
Aerospace Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27695;
Joint UNC-NCSU Department of
Biomedical Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27695
e-mail: ck@ncsu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Bioengineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. Manuscript received April 5, 2013; final manuscript received August 8, 2013; accepted manuscript posted September 6, 2013; published online October 9, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Naomi Chesler.

J Biomech Eng 135(12), 121003 (Oct 09, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: BIO-13-1174; doi: 10.1115/1.4025332 History: Received April 05, 2013; Revised August 08, 2013; Accepted September 06, 2013

This is a two-part paper describing inhaled nanoparticle (NP) transport and deposition in a model of a human respiratory tract (Part I) as well as NP-mass transfer across barriers into systemic regions (Part II). Specifically, combining high-resolution computer simulation results of inhaled NP deposition in the human airways (Part I) with a multicompartmental model for NP-mass transfer (Part II) allows for the prediction of temporal NP accumulation in the blood and lymphatic systems as well as in organs. An understanding of nanoparticle transport and deposition in human respiratory airways is of great importance, as exposure to nanomaterial has been found to cause serious lung diseases, while the use of nanodrugs may have superior therapeutic effects. In Part I, the fluid-particle dynamics of a dilute NP suspension was simulated for the entire respiratory tract, assuming steady inhalation and planar airways. Thus, a realistic airway configuration was considered from nose/mouth to generation 3, and then an idealized triple-bifurcation unit was repeated in series and parallel to cover the remaining generations. Using the current model, the deposition of NPs in distinct regions of the lung, namely extrathoracic, bronchial, bronchiolar, and alveolar, was calculated. The region-specific NP-deposition results for the human lung model were used in Part II to determine the multicompartmental model parameters from experimental retention and clearance data in human lungs. The quantitative, experimentally validated results are useful in diverse fields, such as toxicology for exposure-risk analysis of ubiquitous nanomaterial as well as in pharmacology for nanodrug development and targeting.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic representation of (a) inhaled particle deposition in a human respiratory tract (modified after BéruBé et al. [10]) and (b) workflow connecting computational fluid-particle dynamics results in Part I to multicompartment model in Part II

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Fig. 2

Configuration of representative human nasal-oral upper airway model and TBUs

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Fig. 3

Comparison of CF-PD NP deposition results as a function of particle diameter in human nasal cavities to in vitro experimental deposition measurements

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Fig. 4

Flow in the combined nasal-oral upper airway model: (a) flow streamlines; (b) velocity contours and secondary velocity vectors at selected cross sections; and (c) contours of turbulence kinetic energy at selected cross sections

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Fig. 5

Mass fraction in the combined nasal-oral airway model: (a) contours in a vertical plane and at selected cross sections and (b) NP concentration gradient on the wall

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Fig. 6

Distribution of NP in generations 4–6

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Fig. 7

NP concentration contours along a midplane and NP concentration gradient on wall for TBUs representing generations 4–6, 7–9, 10–12, and 13–15, respectively. Note: The inlet conditions for generation 4 were taken from outlet 4 of the combined nasal-oral airway model.

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Fig. 8

Fluid streamlines in the geometry's midplane of (a) the TBU model for generations 16–18; (b) the TBU model for generations 19–21; and (c) the DBU model for generations 22 and 23 at maximum wall distention

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Fig. 9

Display of (a) NP concentration contours along a midplane and (b) NP concentration wall gradients in the alveolar region

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Fig. 10

Lung deposition fractions based on region of deposition using the deposition efficiency method for 37-nm particles

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Fig. 11

Lung deposition fractions based on the region of deposition for 17-nm particles

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