0
Research Papers

A Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Effect of False Vocal Fold Geometry on Glottal Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
Mehrdad H. Farahani

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
The University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242
e-mail: mehrdad-hosniehfarahani@uiowa.edu

John Mousel

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
The University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242
e-mail: john-mousel@uiowa.edu

Fariborz Alipour

Department of Communication
Science and Disorders,
The University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242
e-mail: alipour@iowa.uiowa.edu

Sarah Vigmostad

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
The University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242
e-mail: sarah-vigmostad@uiowa.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Bioengineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. Manuscript received November 14, 2012; final manuscript received August 21, 2013; accepted manuscript posted September 6, 2013; published online October 10, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Fotis Sotiropoulos.

J Biomech Eng 135(12), 121006 (Oct 10, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: BIO-12-1557; doi: 10.1115/1.4025324 History: Received November 14, 2012; Revised August 21, 2013; Accepted September 06, 2013

The false vocal folds are hypothesized to affect the laryngeal flow during phonation. This hypothesis is tested both computationally and experimentally using rigid models of the human larynges. The computations are performed using an incompressible Navier–Stokes solver with a second order, sharp, immersed-boundary formulation, while the experiments are carried out in a wind tunnel with physiologic speeds and dimensions. The computational flow structures are compared with available glottal flow visualizations and are employed to study the vortex dynamics of the glottal flow. Furthermore, pressure data are collected on the surface of the laryngeal models experimentally and computationally. The investigation focuses on three geometric features: the size of the false vocal fold gap; the height between the true and false vocal folds; and the width of the laryngeal ventricle. It is shown that the false vocal fold gap has a significant effect on glottal flow aerodynamics, whereas the second and the third geometric parameters are of lesser importance. The link between pressure distribution on the surface of the larynx and false vocal fold geometry is discussed in the context of vortex evolution in the supraglottal region. It was found that the formation of the starting vortex considerably affects the pressure distribution on the surface of the larynx. The interaction of this vortex structure with false vocal folds creates rebound vortices in the laryngeal ventricle. In the cases of small false vocal fold gap, these rebound vortices are able to reach the true vocal folds during a time period comparable with one cycle of the phonation. Moreover, they can create complex vorticity patterns, which result in significant pressure fluctuations on the surface of the larynx.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Stager, S., 2011, “The Role of the Supraglottic Area in Voice Production,” Otolaryngol., 2(S), pp. 1–7.
Agarwal, M., Scherer, R. C., and Hollien, H., 2003, “The False Vocal Folds: Shape and Size in Frontal View During Phonation Based on Laminagraphic Tracings,” J. Voice, 17(2), pp. 97–113. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chan, R. W., Fu, M., and Tirunagari, N., 2006, “Elasticity of the Human False Vocal Fold,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 115(5), pp. 370–381. [PubMed]
Haji, T., Mori, K., Omori, K., and Isshiki, N., 1992, “Mechanical-Properties of the Vocal Fold -Stress-Strain Studies,” Acta Oto-Laryngol., 112(3), pp. 559–565. [CrossRef]
Fuks, L., Hammarberg, B., and Sundberg, J., 1998, “A Self-Sustained Vocal-Ventricular Phonation Mode: Acoustical, Aerodynamic and Glottographic Evidences,” KTH TMH-QPSR, 3, pp. 49–59.
Sakakibara, K. I., Imagawa, H., Konishi, T., Kondo, K., Murano, E. Z., Kumada, M., and Niimi, S., 2001, “Vocal Fold and False Vocal Fold Vibrations in Throat Singing and Synthesis of Khöömei,” Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference, Havana, Cuba, pp. 135–138.
Henrich, N., Lortat-Jacob, B., Castellengo, M., Bailly, L., and Pelorson, X., 2006, “Period-Doubling Occurrences in Singing: The ‘Bassu’ case in Traditional Sardinian ‘a Tenore’ singing,” ICVPB (2006), Tokyo.
Borch, D. Z., Sundberg, J., Lindestad, P. Å., and Thalen, M., 2004, “Vocal Fold Vibration and Voice Source Aperiodicity In ‘Dist’ Tones: A Study of a Timbral Ornament in Rock Singing,” Logoped. Phoniatr. Vocol., 29(4), pp. 147–153. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lindestad, P.-Å., Blixt, V., Pahlberg-Olsson, J., and Hammarberg, B., 2004, “Ventricular Fold Vibration in Voice Production: A High-Speed Imaging Study With Kymographic, Acoustic and Perceptual Analyses of a Voice Patient and a Vocally Healthy Subject,” Logoped. Phoniatr. Vocol., 29(4), pp. 162–170. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Nasri, S., Jasleen, J., Gerratt, B. R., Sercarz, J. A., Wenokur, R., and Berke, G. S., 1996, “Ventricular Dysphonia: A Case of False Vocal Fold Mucosal Traveling Wave,” Am. J. Otolaryngol., 17(6), pp. 427–431. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Maryn, Y., De Bodt, M. S., and Van Cauwenberge, P., 2003, “Ventricular Dysphonia: Clinical Aspects and Therapeutic Options,” Laryngoscope, 113(5), pp. 859–866. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Stager, S., Bielamowicz, S., Regnell, J., Gupta, A., and Barkmeier, J., 2000, “Supraglottic Activity: Evidence of Vocal Hyperfunction or Laryngeal Articulation?,” J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res., 43(1), pp. 229–238. [PubMed]
Brunelle, M., Nguyên, D. D., and Nguyên, K. H., 2010, “A Laryngographic and Laryngoscopic Study of Northern Vietnamese Tones,” Phonetica, 67(3), pp. 147–169. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kelchner, L. N., Weinrich, B., Brehm, S. B., Tabangin, M. E., and De Alarcon, A., 2010, “Characterization of Supraglottic Phonation in Children After Airway Reconstruction,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 119(6), pp. 383–390. [PubMed]
Bielamowicz, S., Kapoor, R., Schwartz, J., and Stager, S. V., 2004, “Relationship Among Glottal Area, Static Supraglottic Compression, and Laryngeal Function Studies in Unilateral Vocal Fold Paresis and Paralysis,” J. Voice, 18(1), pp. 138–145. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chisari, N., Artana, G., and Sciamarella, D., 2011, “Vortex Dipolar Structures in a Rigid Model of the Larynx at Flow Onset,” Exp. Fluids, 50(2), pp. 397–406. [CrossRef]
Drechsel, J. S., and Thomson, S. L., 2008, “Influence of Supraglottal Structures on the Glottal Jet Exiting a Two-Layer Synthetic, Self-Oscillating Vocal Fold Model,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 123(6), pp. 4434–4445. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mittal, R., Erath, B. D., and Plesniak, M. W., 2013, “Fluid Dynamics of Human Phonation and Speech,” Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 45(1), pp. 437–467. [CrossRef]
Kucinschi, B. R., Scherer, R. C., Dewitt, K. J., and Ng, T. T. M., 2006, “Flow Visualization and Acoustic Consequences of the Air Moving Through a Static Model of the Human Larynx,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 128(3), pp. 380–390. [CrossRef]
Li, S., Wan, M., and Wang, S., 2008, “The Effects of the False Vocal Fold Gaps on Intralaryngeal Pressure Distributions and Their Effects on Phonation,” Sci. China Ser. C: Life Sci., 51(11), pp. 1045–1051. [CrossRef]
Triep, M., and Brücker, C., 2010, “Three-Dimensional Nature of the Glottal Jet,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 127, pp. 1537–1547. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zheng, X., Bielamowicz, S., Luo, H., and Mittal, R., 2009, “A Computational Study of the Effect of False Vocal Folds on Glottal Flow and Vocal Fold Vibration During Phonation,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 37(3), pp. 625–642. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Alipour, F., Jaiswal, S., and Finnegan, E., 2007, “Aerodynamic and Acoustic Effects of False Vocal Folds and Epiglottis in Excised Larynx Models,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 116(2), pp. 135–144. [PubMed]
Alipour, F., and Scherer, R. C., 2002, “Pressure and Velocity Profiles in a Static Mechanical Hemilarynx Model,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 112(6), pp. 2996–3003. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cattafesta, L., Williams, D., Rowley, C., and Alvi, F., 2003, “Review of Active Control of Flow-Induced Cavity Resonance,” AIAA Paper No. 2003-3567.
Zhang, C., Zhao, W., Frankel, S. H., and Mongeau, L., 2002, “Computational Aeroacoustics of Phonation, Part II: Effects of Flow Parameters and Ventricular Folds,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 112, pp. 2147–2154. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mcgowan, R. S., and Howe, M. S., 2010, “Influence of the Ventricular Folds on a Voice Source With Specified Vocal Fold Motion,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 127, pp. 1519–1527. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Faure, T., Adrianos, P., Lusseyran, F., and Pastur, L., 2007, “Visualizations of the Flow Inside an Open Cavity at Medium Range Reynolds Numbers,” Exp. Fluids, 42(2), pp. 169–184. [CrossRef]
Ozalp, C., Pinarbasi, A., and Sahin, B., 2010, “Experimental Measurement of Flow Past Cavities of Different Shapes,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 34(5), pp. 505–515. [CrossRef]
Sethian, J. A., 1999, Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods: Evolving Interfaces in Computational Geometry, Fluid Mechanics, Computer Vision, and Materials Science, Cambridge University, Cambridge, England.
Udaykumar, H., Krishnan, S., and Marella, S. V., 2009, “Adaptively Refined, Parallelised Sharp Interface Cartesian Grid Method for Three-Dimensional Moving Boundary Problems,” Int. J. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 23(1), pp. 1–24. [CrossRef]
Orlandi, P., 1990, “Vortex Dipole Rebound From a Wall,” Phys. Fluids A, 2(8), pp. 1429–1436. [CrossRef]
Chu, C.-C., Wang, C.-T., and Hsieh, C.-S., 1993, “An Experimental Investigation of Vortex Motions Near Surfaces,” Phys. Fluids A, 5(3), pp. 662–676. [CrossRef]
Schwarze, R., Mattheus, W., Klostermann, J., and Brücker, C., 2011, “Starting Jet Flows in a Three-Dimensional Channel With Larynx-Shaped Constriction,” Comput. Fluids, 48(1), pp. 68–83. [CrossRef]
Zheng, X., Mittal, R., Xue, Q., and Bielamowicz, S., 2011, “Direct-Numerical Simulation of the Glottal Jet and Vocal-Fold Dynamics in a Three-Dimensional Laryngeal Model,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 130(1), pp. 404–415. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Neubauer, J., Zhang, Z., Miraghaie, R., and Berry, D. A., 2007, “Coherent Structures of the Near Field Flow in a Self-Oscillating Physical Model of the Vocal Folds,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 121, pp. 1102–1118. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Xue, Q., Mittal, R., Zheng, X., and Bielamowicz, S., 2012, “Computational Modeling of Phonatory Dynamics in a Tubular Three-Dimensional Model of the Human Larynx,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 132(3), pp. 1602–1613. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gharib, M., Rambod, E., and Shariff, K., 1998, “A Universal Time Scale for Vortex Ring Formation,” J. Fluid Mech., 360, pp. 121–140. [CrossRef]
Link, G., Kaltenbacher, M., Breuer, M., and Döllinger, M., 2009, “A 2D Finite-Element Scheme for Fluid–Solid–Acoustic Interactions and Its Application to Human Phonation,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 198(41), pp. 3321–3334. [CrossRef]
Steinecke, I., and Herzel, H., 1995, “Bifurcations in an Asymmetric Vocal-Fold Model,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 97(3), pp. 1874–1884. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Agarwal, M., Scherer, R., and Witt, K. D., 2001, “Effects of False Vocal Fold Width on Translaryngeal Flow Resistance,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics: Modeling Complexity, Marseille, France, August 2004.
Scherer, R. C., Shinwari, D., De Witt, K. J., Zhang, C., Kucinschi, B. R., and Afjeh, A. A., 2001, “Intraglottal Pressure Profiles for a Symmetric and Oblique Glottis With a Divergence Angle of 10 Degrees,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 109(4), pp. 1616–1630. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Alipour, F., and Scherer, R. C., 2001, “Effects of Oscillation of a Mechanical Hemilarynx Model on Mean Transglottal Pressures and Flows,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 110(3), pp. 1562–1569. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the laryngeal models, Wsub = width of subglottal region, Wsup = width of supraglottal region, WVL = width of ventricle of the larynx, Hfvf = height between FVFs and TVFs, Gtvf = TVF gap, Gfvf = FVF gap. Gtvf = 1 mm and Wsub = Wsup = 20 mm are constant for all models. The location of the pressure taps on the surface of the experimental models is shown in the lower side of the larynx.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Vorticity contour of the air flow in a semilaryngeal structure at dimensional times of (a) 3.5 ms, (b) 5.8 ms, (c) 7.2 ms, (d) 7.8 ms, and (e) 9.5 ms. The size of first and second constriction gap was 0.04 and 0.08 cm, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

A comparison between the current computational solver (solid lines) with the result of Chisari et al. [16] (scattered symbols). (a) Pressure and (b) streamwise velocity profiles along the line that connect the starting vortex centroids at times of 3.73 ms (circles), 4.43 ms (squares), 4.78 ms (diamonds), and 5.83 ms (deltas).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Grid refinement study: (a) comparison between the coarse and fine mesh. The Cartesian mesh interior to the solid that is not required for the ghost fluid treatment is pruned during the simulation for improved memory performance. (b) Comparison between the vorticity contours of the coarse and fine grid at t* = 0.104, 0.176, and 0.272, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Nondimensional vorticity contours for the laryngeal models with different sizes of the Gfvf at nondimensional time (t*) of (a) 0.128, (b) 0.176, (c) 0.24, and (d) 0.304. The interaction between the starting vortex and the FVFs increases as the Gfvf decreases; hence, rebound vortices in the laryngeal ventricle of the models with narrow Gfvf are stronger.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Nondimensional differential pressure (ΔP*) history on the surface of the TVFs (a), laryngeal ventricle (b), and FVFs (c) for models with different sizes of FVF gap. t* is the nondimensional time. The pressure initially drops as the starting vortex is created and convected in the laryngeal ventricle and then recovers partially for the rest of the simulation. Moreover, pressure data on the surface of the FVF fluctuate for the models with narrow Gfvf.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Nondimensional vorticity contours for the laryngeal models with different size of Hfvf at nondimensional time (t*) of (a) 0.128 and (b) 0.304, respectively

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Nondimensional differential pressure (ΔP*) history on the surface of (a) TVFs and (b) FVFs for models with different sizes of Hfvf. t* is the nondimensional time. The plot of ΔP* on the surface of the laryngeal ventricle (plot omitted) is similar to ΔP* on the surface of the TVFs; however, its values after pressure recovery are close to the ΔP* on the surface of the FVFs.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Nondimensional vorticity contours for the laryngeal models with different sizes of Wlv at nondimensional time (t*) of (a) 0.128 and (b) 0.304

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Nondimensional differential pressure history on the surface of TVFs and FVFs for models with different sizes of Wlv

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In