Research Papers

Biomechanical and Injury Response of Human Foot and Ankle Under Complex Loading

[+] Author and Article Information
Jaeho Shin

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
University of Virginia,
Charlottesville, VA 22904

Costin D. Untaroiu

Virginia Tech-Wake Forest School of
Biomedical Engineering and Sciences,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24060
e-mail: costin@vt.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Bioengineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. Manuscript received January 19, 2013; final manuscript received July 19, 2013; accepted manuscript posted July 29, 2013; published online September 20, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Zong-Ming Li.

J Biomech Eng 135(10), 101008 (Sep 20, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: BIO-13-1026; doi: 10.1115/1.4025108 History: Received January 19, 2013; Revised July 19, 2013; Accepted July 29, 2013

Ankle and subtalar joint injuries of vehicle front seat occupants are frequently recorded during frontal and offset vehicle crashes. A few injury criteria for foot and ankle were proposed in the past; however, they addressed only certain injury mechanisms or impact loadings. The main goal of this study was to investigate numerically the tolerance of foot and ankle under complex loading which may appear during automotive crashes. A previously developed and preliminarily validated foot and leg finite element (FE) model of a 50th percentile male was employed in this study. The model was further validated against postmortem human subjects (PMHS) data in various loading conditions that generates the bony fractures and ligament failures in ankle and subtalar regions observed in traffic accidents. Then, the foot and leg model were subjected to complex loading simulated as combinations of axial, dorsiflexion, and inversion loadings. An injury surface was fitted through the points corresponding to the parameters recorded at the time of failure in the FE simulations. The compelling injury predictions of the injury surface in two crash simulations may recommend its application for interpreting the test data recorded by anthropometric test devices (ATD) during crash tests. It is believed that the methodology presented in this study may be appropriate for the development of injury criteria under complex loadings corresponding to other body regions as well.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kuppa, S., Wang, J., Haffner, M., and EppingerR., 2001, “Lower Extremity Injuries and Associated Injury Criteria,” Proceedings of 17th ESV Conference, Paper No. 457, pp. 1–15.
Stucki, S.-L., Hollowell, W.-T., and Fessahaie, O., 1998, “Determination of Frontal Offset Test Conditions Based on Crash Data,” Proceedings of 16th ESV Conference, Paper No. 98-SI-O-02.
Funk, J., Tourret, L., George, S., and Crandall, J. R., 2000, “The Role of Axial Loading in Malleolar Fractures,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2000-01-0155.
Funk, J., Srinivasan, S., Crandall, J. R., Khaewpong, N., Eppinger, R., Jaffredo, A., Potier, P., and Petit, P., 2002, “The Effects of Axial Preload and Dorsiflexion on the Tolerance of the Ankle/Subtalar Joint to Dynamic Inversion and Eversion,” Proceedings of the 46th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Technical Paper No. 2002-22-0013.
Shin, J., Yue, N., and Untaroiu, C. D., 2012, “A Finite Element Model of the Foot and Ankle for Automotive Impact Applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 40(12), pp. 2519–2531. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tannous, R. E., Bandok, F. A., Toridis, T. G., and Eppinger, R. H., 1996, “A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Model of the Human Ankle: Development and Preliminary Application to Axial Impulsive Loading,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper 962427.
Beaugonin, M., Haug, E., and Cesari, D., 1997, “Improvement of Numerical Ankle/Foot Model: Modeling of Deformable Bone,” 41st Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings, pp. 225–237.
Beillas, P., Lavaste, F., Nicoloupoulos, D., Kayventash, K., Yang, K. H., and Robin, S., 1999, “Foot and Ankle Finite Element Modeling Using CT-Scan Data,” 43rd Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings, pp. 171–184.
Iwamoto, M., Miki, K., and Tanaka, E., 2005, “Ankle Skeletal Injury Predictions Using Anisotropic Inelastic Constitutive Model of Cortical Bone Taking Into Account Damage Evolution,” Proceedings of the 49th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 133–156.
Rudd, R., Crandall, J., Millington, S., Hurwitz, S., and Hoglund, N., 2004, “Injury Tolerance and Response of the Ankle Joint in Dynamic Dorsiflexion,” Stapp Car Crash J., 48, pp. 1–26. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17230259 [PubMed]
Chen, J., Siegler, S., and Schneck, C. D., 1998, “The Three-Dimensional Kinematics and Flexibility Characteristics of the Human Ankle and Subtalar Joints—Part II: Flexibility Characteristics,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 110(4), pp. 374–385 [CrossRef]
Wei, F., Villwock, M. R., Meyer, E. G., Powell, J. W., and Haut, R. C., 2010, “A Biomechanical Investigation of Ankle Injury Under Excessive External Foot Rotation in the Human Cadaver,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 32(9), p. 091001. [CrossRef]
Untaroiu, C. D., Shin, J., and Lu, Y.-C., 2013, “Assessment of a Dummy Model in Crash Simulations Using Rating Methods,” Int. J. Auto. Technol., 14(3), pp. 395–405. [CrossRef]
Gayzik, F., Moreno, D., Geer, C., Wuertzer, S., Martin, R., and Stitzel, J., 2011, “Development of a Full Body CAD Dataset for Computational Modeling: A Multi-Modality Approach,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 39(10), pp. 2568–2583. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Untaroiu, C. D., Yue, N., and Shin, J., 2013, “A Finite Element Model of the Lower Limb for Simulating Automotive Impacts,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 41(3), pp. 513–526. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Burstein, A. H., Reilly, D. T., and Martens, M., 1976, “Aging of Bone Tissue: Mechanical Properties,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 58(1), pp. 82–86. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1249116 [PubMed]
Linde, F., Hvid, I., and Pongsoipetch, B., 1989, “Energy Absorptive Properties of Human Trabecular Bone Specimens During Axial Compression,” J. Orthop. Res., 7(3), pp. 432–439. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Untaroiu, C., Darvish, K., Crandall, J., Deng, B., and Wang, J. T., 2005, “A Finite Element Model of the Lower Limb for Simulating Pedestrian Impact,” Stapp Car Crash J., 49, pp. 157–181. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17096273 [PubMed]
Erdemir, A., Viveiros, M. L., Ulbrecht, J. S., and Cavanagh, P. R., 2006, “An Inverse Finite-Element Model of Heel-Pad Indentation,” J. Biomech., 39, pp. 1279–1286. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Snedeker, J. G., Muser, M. H., and Walz, F. H.2003, “Assessment of Pelvis and Upper Leg Injury Risk in Car-Pedestrian Collisions: Comparison of Accident Statistics, Impactor Tests, and a Human Body Finite Element Model,” Stapp Car Crash J., 47, pp. 437–457. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17096259 [PubMed]
Hall, G. W., 1998, “Biomechanical Characterization and Multibody Modeling of the Human Lower Extremity,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia.
Siegler, S., Chen, J., and Schneck, C. D., 1988, “The Three-Dimensional Kinematics and Flexibility Characteristics of the Human Ankle and Subtalar Joints—Part I: Kinematics,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 110(4), pp. 364–373. [CrossRef]
Funk, J., Hall, G. W., Crandall, J. R., and Pilkey, W. D., 2000, “Linear and Quasi-Linear Viscoelastic Characterization of Ankle Ligaments,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 122(1), pp. 15–22. [CrossRef]
Jaffredo, A. S., Potier, P., Robin, S. R., Le Coz, J. Y., and Lassau, J. P., 2000, “Cadaver Lower Limb Dynamic Response in Inversion-Eversion,” IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact, pp. 183–194.
White, A. A., and Panjabi, M. M., 1978, Clinical Biomechanics of the Spine, J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, PA.
Parenteau, C. S., Viano, D. C., and Petit, P. Y., 1998, “Biomechanical Properties of Human Cadaveric Ankle–Subtalar Joints in Quasi-Static Loading,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 120(1), pp. 105–111. [CrossRef]
Manning, P., Wallace, W. A., Roberts, A. K., Owen, C. J., and Lowne, R. W., 1997, “The Position and Movement of the Foot in Emergency Maneuvers and the Influence of Tension in the Achilles Tendon,” Proceedings of the 41st Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Technical Paper No. 973329, pp. 195–206.
Owen, C., Roberts, A., Manning, P., and Lowne, R. 1998, “Positioning and Bracing of the Lower Leg During Emergency Braking—A Volunteer Study,” IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact, pp. 147–159.
Palmertz, C., Jakobsson, L., and Karlsson, A. S., 1998, “Pedal Use and Foot Positioning During Emergency Braking,” IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact, pp. 135–146.
Rudd, R. W., Crandall, J. R., Bass, C. R., Lynn, S., and Keller, J., 1998, “Lower Extremity and Brake Pedal Interaction in Frontal Collisions: Sled Tests,” SAE Technical, Paper No. 980359.
National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, 2011, http:// www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/database/aspx/biodb/querytesttable.aspx
Kim, Y. H., Kim, J. E., and Eberhardt, A. W., 2013. “A New Cortical Thickness Mapping Method With Application to an in Vivo Finite Element Model,” Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng. [CrossRef]
Rupp, J. D., Miller, C. S., Reed, M. P., Madura, N. H., Klinich, K. D., and Schneider, L. W., 2008, “Characterization of Knee-Thigh-Hip Response in Frontal Impacts Using Biomechanical Testing and Computational Simulations,” Stapp Car Crash J., 52, pp. 421–474. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19085172 [PubMed]
Box, G. E. P., and Draper, N. R., 2007, Response Surfaces, Mixtures, and Ridge Analyses, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Lu, Y. C., and Untaroiu, C. D., 2012, “A Bootstrap Approach for Lower Injury Levels of the Risk Curves,” Comput, Methods Programs Biomed., 106(3), pp. 274–286. [CrossRef]
Crandall, J. R., Martin, P. G., Sieveka, E. M., Klopp, G. S., Kuhlmann, T. P., Pilkey, W. D., Dischinger, P. C., Burgess, A. R., O'Quinn, T. D., and Schmidhauser, C. B., 1995, “The Influence of Footwell Intrusion on Lower Extremity Response and Injury in Frontal Crashes,” Proceedings of the 39th Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, pp. 269–286.
Fildes, B., Lenard, J., Lane, J. C., Vulcan, P., and Seyer, K., 1995, “Lower Limb Injuries to Passenger Car Occupants,” IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact.
Behr, M., Arnoux, P. J., Serre, T., Thollon, L., and Brunet, C., 2006, “Tonic Finite Element Model of the Lower Limb,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 128(2), pp. 223–228. [CrossRef]
Morris, A., Thomas, P., Taylor, A. M., and Wallace, W. A., 1999, “Mechanisms of Ankle and Hind-Foot Injuries to Drivers and Passengers in Frontal Crashes as Deduced From Field Studies,” Int. J. Crashworthiness, 4(3), pp. 305–316. [CrossRef]
Dischinger, P. C., Burgess, A. R., Cushing, B. M., Pilkey, W. D., Crandall, J. R., Sieveka, E. M., and Klopp, G. S., 1994, “Lower Extremity Trauma in Vehicular Front-Seat Occupants,” Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE Technical Paper No. 940710, pp. 29–42.
Wagner, U. A., Sangeorzan, B. J., Harrington, R. M., and Tencer, A. F., 1992, “Contact Characteristics of the Subtalar Joint: Load Distribution Between the Anterior and Posterior Facets,” J. Orthop. Res., 10(4), pp. 535–543. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wang, C. L., Cheng, C. K., Chen, C. W., Lu, C. M., Hang, Y. S., and Liu, T. K., 1995, “Contact Areas and Pressure Distribution in the Subtalar Joint,” J. Biomech., 28(3), pp. 269–279. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Imhauser, C. W., Siegler, S., Udupa, J. K., and Toy, J., 2008, “Subject-Specific Models of the Hindfoot Reveal a Relationship Between Morphology and Passive Mechanical Properties,” J. Biomech., 41(6), pp. 1341–1349. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lu, Y.-C., and Untaroiu, C. D., 2013, “Statistical Shape Analysis of Clavicular Cortical Bone With Applications to the Development of Mean and Boundary Shape Models,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed., 111(3), pp. 613–628. [CrossRef] [PubMed]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Simulation setup of the axial impact test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) FE approach to define the center of rotation in inversion/eversion loadings. (b) Simulation setup of the inversion/eversion tests

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Simulation setup for complex loading including axial, inversion, and dorsiflexion loadings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Simulation setup for the simplified vehicle sled loading configuration with fixed knee bolster and dorsiflexion loading at the foot plate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) The FE model of the axial impact loading at 20 ms. (b) Force time history (filtered: SAE180) comparison between tests and simulation. (c) Bony fracture location-comparison between test and simulation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The distance between the center of rotation and the heel bottom: FE calculation versus test data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison between the moment-angle response in PMHS tests and FE simulations for (a) eversion loading and (b) inversion loading

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison between the moment-angle response in PMHS tests and FE simulations for (a) eversion loading with 2 kN axial preload and (b) inversion loading with 2 kN axial preload

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Tibia forces and angles at the time of first failure under combined loadings: (a) axial-inversion loadings and (b) axial-dosiflexion loadings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Injury surface under complex loadings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

(a) Injury parameters at the time of maximum tibia force (case 1) and at the time of first failure (case 2) relative to the injury boundary. (b) Deformed shapes of two different loading scenarios at the times of maximum tibia forces




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In