The mitral valve is a complex apparatus with multiple constituents that work cohesively to ensure unidirectional flow between the left atrium and ventricle. Disruption to any or all of the components—the annulus, leaflets, chordae, and papillary muscles—can lead to backflow of blood, or regurgitation, into the left atrium, which deleteriously effects patient health. Through the years, a myriad of surgical repairs have been proposed; however, a careful appreciation for the underlying structural mechanics can help optimize long-term repair durability and inform medical device design. In this review, we aim to present the experimental methods and significant results that have shaped the current understanding of mitral valve mechanics. Data will be presented for all components of the mitral valve apparatus in control, pathological, and repaired conditions from human, animal, and in vitro studies. Finally, current strategies of patient specific and noninvasive surgical planning will be critically outlined.