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Research Papers

Investigation of the In Vitro Culture Process for Skeletal-Tissue-Engineered Constructs Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experimental Methods

[+] Author and Article Information
Md. Shakhawath Hossain

e-mail: mdh511@mail.usask.ca

X. B. Chen

e-mail: xbc719@mail.usask.ca

D. J. Bergstrom

e-mail: don.bergstrom@usask.ca
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Saskatchewan,
57 Campus Drive Saskatoon, SK,
S7N 5A9, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Bioengineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 23, 2012; final manuscript received October 4, 2012; accepted manuscript posted October 25, 2012; published online November 27, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Pasquale Vena.

J Biomech Eng 134(12), 121003 (Nov 27, 2012) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007952 History: Received May 23, 2012; Revised October 04, 2012; Accepted October 25, 2012

The in vitro culture process via bioreactors is critical to create tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) to repair or replace the damaged tissues/organs in various engineered applications. In the past, the TEC culture process was typically treated as a black box and performed on the basis of trial and error. Recently, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has demonstrated its potential to analyze the fluid flow inside and around the TECs, therefore, being able to provide insight into the culture process, such as information on the velocity field and shear stress distribution that can significantly affect such cellular activities as cell viability and proliferation during the culture process. This paper briefly reviews the CFD and experimental methods used to investigate the in vitro culture process of skeletal-type TECs in bioreactors, where mechanical deformation of the TEC can be ignored. Specifically, this paper presents CFD modeling approaches for the analysis of the velocity and shear stress fields, mass transfer, and cell growth during the culture process and also describes various particle image velocimetry (PIV) based experimental methods to measure the velocity and shear stress in the in vitro culture process. Some key issues and challenges are also identified and discussed along with recommendations for future research.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

A representative elementary volume in the rigid porous medium

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of cell growth model

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Fig. 3

Map of local shear stresses (Pa) in media transversely perfused through a 3D trabecular bone TEC from side and top view [4]

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Fig. 4

Contours of macroscopic viscous shear stresses (mPa) after 30 days of culture, at a Peclet number of 100 and 20 μm/s perfusion rates [19]

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Fig. 5

Annotated schematic of the SPIV configuration, viewed from above [57]

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Fig. 6

Schematic of a closed perfusion system used for micro-PIV experiments, consisting of a reservoir, a peristaltic pump, and a bioreactor connected by tubing [64]

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