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TECHNICAL BRIEFS

Stress, Strain, and Mechanotransduction in Cells

[+] Author and Article Information
J. D. Humphrey

Biomedical Engineering Program, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3120

J Biomech Eng 123(6), 638-641 (Aug 06, 2001) (4 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1406131 History: Received January 26, 2001; Revised August 06, 2001
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Topics: Stress , Mechanisms , Force
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References

Goldspink,  G., 1999, “Changes in Muscle Mass and Phenotype and the Expression of Autocrine and Systemic Growth Factors by Muscle In Response to Stretch and Overload,” J. Anat., 194, pp. 323–334.
Ingber,  D. E., 1997, “Tensegrity: The Architectural Basis of Cellular Mechanotransduction,” Annu. Rev. Physiol., 59, pp. 575–599.
Omens,  J. H., 1998, “Stress and Strain as Regulators of Myocardial Growth,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol., 69, pp. 559–572.
Sadoshima,  J., and Izumo,  S., 1997, “The Cellular and Molecular Response of Cardiac Myocytes to Mechanical Stress,” Annu. Rev. Physiol., 59, pp. 551–571.
Thompson, D., 1961, On Growth and Form, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (note: abridged version from the 1917 and 1942 editions).
Sachs,  F., 1988, “Mechanical Transduction in Biological Systems,” CRC Crit. Rev. Biomed. Engr., 16, pp. 141–169.
Reneman,  R. S., Arts,  T., van Bilsen,  M., Snoeckx,  L. H., and van der Vusse,  G. J., 1995, “Mechano-perception and Mechanotransduction in Cardiac Adaptation: Mechanical and Molecular Aspects,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 382, pp. 185–194.
Cowin,  S. C., 1996, “Strain or Deformation Rate Dependent Finite Growth in Soft Tissues,” J. Biomech., 29, pp. 647–649.
Timoshenko, S. P., 1953, History of Strength of Materials, Dover Publications, New York.
Malvern, L. E., 1969, Introduction to the Mechanics of a Continuous Medium, Prentice-Hall, NJ.
Truesdell, C., 1966, The Mechanical Foundations of Elasticity and Fluid Dynamics, Gordon and Breach, NY.
Spencer, A. J. M., 1980, Continuum Mechanics, Longman Group, Essex.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Schema of the basic concept of the Cauchy stress t, which transforms an outward unit normal vector n into a traction vector (defined as df/da). In particular, note that the stress at a point is the mean t that transforms all T(n) on all oriented surfaces nda within the representative volume element, which we mathematically shrink to a point in a limiting process. Similarly, strain tensors represent the mean associated with the transformation of all dX into all dx within representative volume elements dV and dv as they shrink to a point.

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