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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Evaluation of Cement Stresses in Finite Element Analyses of Cemented Orthopaedic Implants

[+] Author and Article Information
A. B. Lennon, P. J. Prendergast

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland

J Biomech Eng 123(6), 623-628 (Jul 10, 2001) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1412452 History: Received August 24, 2000; Revised July 10, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Britton,  A. R., Murray,  D. W., Bulstrode,  C. J., McPhearson,  K., and Denham,  R. A., 1997, “Pain Levels After Total Hip Replacement. Their Use as Endpoints for Survival Analysis,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., 79B, pp. 93–98.
Malchau, H., and Herberts, P., 1998, “Prognosis of Total Hip Replacement. Revision and Re-revision Rate in THR. A Revision Risk Study of 148,359 Primary Operations,” scientific exhibition presented at the 65th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, New Orleans, LA.
Huiskes,  R., and Boeklagen,  R., 1989, “Mathematical Shape Optimization of Hip Prosthesis Design,” J. Biomech., 22, pp. 793–804.
Lee, A. J. C., 1994, “Implants for Fixation With and Without a Collar,” in: Technical Principles, Design, and Safety of Joint Implants, G. H. Buchhorn and H.-G. Willert, eds., Hogrefe & Hubber, Bern, pp. 128–132.
Harris,  W. H., 1992, “Is It Advantageous to Strengthen the Cement Metal Interface and Use a Collar for Cemented Femoral Components of Total Hip Replacements,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 285, pp. 67–72.
Prendergast, P. J. “Bone Prostheses and Implants,” in: Bone Mechanics Handbook, (S. C. Cowin, ed.), Boca Raton, FL, Chap. 35.
Huiskes,  R., 1990 “The Various Stress Patterns of Press-Fit, Ingrown, and Cemented Femoral Stems,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 261, pp. 27–38.
Harrigan,  T. P., Kareh,  J. A., O’Connor,  D. O., Burke,  D. W., and Harris,  W. H., 1992, “A Finite Element Study of the Initiation of Failure of Fixation in Cemented Femoral Total Hip Components,” J. Orthop. Res., 10, pp. 134–144.
McCormack,  B. A. O., and Prendergast,  P. J., 1999, “Microdamage Accumulation in the Cement Layer of Hip Replacements Under Flexural Loading,” J. Biomech., 32, pp. 467–475.
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Verdonschot,  N., and Huiskes,  R., 1996, “Mechanical Effects of Stem Cement Interface Characteristics in Total Hip Replacement,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 329, pp. 326–336.
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Verdonschot,  N., and Huiskes,  R., 1997, “The Effects of Cement-Stem Debonding in THA on the Long-Term Failure Probability of Cement,” J. Biomech., 30, pp. 795–802.
Viceconti, M., 1997, curve2_3.igs, from: The ISB Finite Element Repository, Istituti Rizzoli; http://www.cineca.it/hosted/LTM/back2net/ISB_mesh.
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Figures

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Finite element meshes of: (a) intact femur, (b) hip prosthesis femoral component, (c) cement mantle, and (d) implanted femur. Note that x axis points medially, y anteriorly, and z superiorly. α is the angle the neck axis makes with its own projection onto the transverse (x–y) plane. β is the angle the neck axis makes with the x axis in the transverse (x–y) plane.
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Comparison of maximum tensile principal stresses in the anterior half of the cement using the scale for the bonded case. The stresses are extrapolated from the integration points and averaged at the nodes. Cases are: (a) bonded, (b) debonded, and (c) debonded with distal cement removed.
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Tensile maximum principal stress vectors in proximal, middle, and distal sections of cement mantle for: (a) bonded, (b) debonded, and (c) debonded with distal cement removed. The proximal and distal sections were taken a small distance away from the layers containing the peak stresses so as to give a more representative illustration of principal stress vectors (this is why the anterior vectors in (a) and distal vectors in (b) do not appear as maxima). P=posterior,M=medial,A=anterior, and L=lateral.
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Distribution of percent volume of cement over a stress range of 0–8 MPa, for the three implanted models
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Percentage volume of cement satisfying probability-of-failure survival at 10 million cycles (PF=1 predicts failure within 10 million cycles and PF=0 predicts survival for the same time period)
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A photograph of the strain gaged femur in the Instron testing machine. Note, there are four gages on each of the anterior, posterior, medial and lateral surfaces (i.e., 12 altogether)
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Strain measured in the femur (strain gauges) versus strain predicted in the femur (finite element). Error bars show ± two standard deviations of each mean gage measurement from three readings.

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