Total Strain Fields of the Antero-Inferior Shoulder Capsule Under Subluxation: A Stereoradiogrammetric Study

[+] Author and Article Information
David M. Malicky

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383

Louis J. Soslowsky

McKay Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104

John E. Kuhn, Cameron M. Mouro

Orthopaedic Research Laboratories, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 45454

Michael J. Bey

McKay Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104; Orthopaedic Research Laboratories, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 45454

Jonathan A. Raz

Division of Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104

Changying A. Liu

Clinical Reporting System, Parke-Davis, City, ST 90909

J Biomech Eng 123(5), 425-431 (Apr 17, 2001) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1394197 History: Received October 21, 1999; Revised April 17, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Blasier,  R. B., Guldberg,  R. E., and Rothman,  E. D., 1992, “Anterior Shoulder Stability: Contributions of Rotator Cuff Forces and the Capsular Ligaments in a Cadaver Model,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg., 1, pp. 140–150.
Debski,  R. E., Wong,  E. K., Sakane,  M., Warner,  J. J. P., and Woo,  SL-Y, 1998, “In-Situ Forces in the Glenohumeral Ligaments During Anterior Loading,” Trans. Orthop. Res. Soc., 23, p. 1031.
Malicky,  D. M., Soslowsky,  L. J., Blasier,  R. B., and Shyr,  Y., 1996, “Anterior Glenohumeral Stabilization Factors: Progressive Effects in a Biomechanical Model,” J. Orthop. Res., 14, pp. 282–288.
Cain,  P. R., Mutschler,  T. A., Fu,  F. H., and Lee,  S. K., 1987, “Anterior Stability of the Glenohumeral Joint. A Dynamic Model,” Am. J. Sports Med., 15, pp 144–148.
O’Connell,  P. W., Nuber,  G. W., Mileski,  R. A., and Lautenschlager,  E., 1990, “The Contribution of the Glenohumeral Ligaments to Anterior Stability of the Shoulder Joint,” Am. J. Sports Med., 18, pp. 579–584.
Terry,  G. C., Hammon,  D., France,  P., and Norwood,  L. A., 1991, “The Stabilizing Function of Passive Shoulder Restraints,” Am. J. Sports Med., 19, pp. 26–34.
Grigg,  P., and Hoffman,  A. H., 1993, “Loading and Deformation of the Cat Posterior Knee Joint Capsule in Axial and Extension Rotations,” J. Biomech., 26, pp. 1283–1290.
Hoffman,  A. H., and Grigg,  P., 1984, “A Method for Measuring Strains in Soft Tissue,” J. Biomech. 17, pp. 795–800.
Khalsa,  P. S., Hoffman,  A. H., and Grigg,  P., 1996, “Mechanical States Encoded by Stretch-Sensitive Neurons in Feline Joint Capsule,” J. Neurophysiol. 76, pp. 175–187.
Bay,  B. K., 1995, “Texture Correlation: A Method for the Measurement of Detailed Strain Distributions Within Trabecular Bone,” J. Orthop. Res., 13, pp. 258–267.
Kawada,  T., Abe,  T., Yamamoto,  T., Hirokawa,  S., Soejima,  T., Tanaka,  N., and Inque,  A., 1998, “Analysis of Strain Distribution on the Surface of Ligament Using Photoelastic Coating Method,” Trans. Orthop. Res. Soc., 23, p 1025.
Hashima,  A. R., Young,  A. A., McCulloh,  A. D., and Waldman,  L. K., 1993, “Nonhomogeneous Analysis of Epicardial Strain Distributions During Acute Myocardial Ischemia in the Dog,” J. Biomech., 26, pp. 19–35.
Axel,  L., 1997, “Noninvasive Measurement of Cardiac Strain With MRI,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 430, pp. 249–256.
Selvik,  G., 1989, “Roentgen Stereophotogrammetry. A Method for the Study of the Kinematics of the Skeletal System,” Acta Orthop. Scand. Suppl., 232, pp. 1–51.
O’Brien,  S. J., Warren,  R. F., and Schwartz,  E., 1987, “Anterior Shoulder Instability,” Clin. North Am.,18, pp. 395–408.
Warner, J. J. P., and Flatow, E. L., 1996, “Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Unstable Shoulder,” in: The Unstable Shoulder, L. U. Bigliani, ed., AAOS, Rosemont, IL, pp.1–24.
Ateshian,  G. A., Soslowsky,  L. J., and Mow,  V. C., 1991, “Quantitation of Articular Surface Topography and Cartilage Thickness in Knee Joints Using Stereophotogrammetry,” J. Biomech., 24, pp. 761–776.
Huiskes,  R., Kremers,  J., de Lange,  A., Woltring,  H. J., Selvik,  G., and van Rens,  T. J., 1985, “Analytical Stereophotogrammetric Determination of Three-Dimensional Knee-joint Geometry,” J. Biomech., 18, pp 559–70.
Abernathy,  R. B., Benedict,  R. P., and Dowdell,  R. B., 1985, “ASME Measurement Uncertainty,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 107, pp. 161–164.
Spoor,  C. W., and Veldpaus,  F. E., 1980, “Rigid Body Motion Calculated From Spatial Coordinates of Markers,” J. Biomech., 13, pp. 391–393.
Doody,  S. G., Freedman,  L., and Waterland,  J. C., 1970, “Shoulder Movements During Abduction in the Scapular Plane,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 51, pp. 595–604.
Freedman,  L., and Munro,  R. R., 1966, “Abduction of the Arm in the Scapular Plane; Scapular Glenohumeral Movements,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol., 48, pp. 1503–1510.
Poppen,  N. K., and Walker,  P. S., 1976, “Normal and Abnormal Motion of the Shoulder,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol., 58, pp. 195–201.
Finney, D., 1978, Statistical Methods in Biological Assay, C. Griffen, London.
Bigliani,  L. U., Pollock,  R. G., Soslowsky,  L., Flatow,  E. L., Pawluk,  R. J., and Mow,  V. C., 1992, “Tensile Properties of the Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament,” J. Orthop. Res., 10, pp. 187–197.
Ticker,  J. B., Bigliani,  L. U., Soslowsky,  L. J., Pawluk,  R. J., Flatow,  E. L., and Mow,  V. C., 1996, “Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament: Geometric and Strain-Rate Dependent Properties,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg., 5, pp. 269–279.
Gohlke,  F., Essigkrug,  B., and Schmitz,  F., 1994, “The Pattern of Collagen Fiber Bundles of the Capsule of the Glenohumeral Joint,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg., 3, pp. 111–128.
Helmig,  P., Sojbjerg,  J. O., Sneppen,  O., Loehr,  F. J., Ostgaard,  S. E., and Suder,  P., 1993, “Glenohumeral Movement Patterns After Puncture of the Joint Capsule: An Experimental Study,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg., 2, pp. 209–215.


Grahic Jump Location
Diagram of the shoulder showing muscles, ligaments, and the AIC (Antero-Inferior Capsule). This is a lateral view of a right shoulder socket as seen from the humeral head. The AIC (dashed lines) spans a region of joint capsule from glenoid to humerus, from the 2 o’clock position to the 6 o’clock position. Muscles: SP=Supraspinatus, SB=Subscapularis, IF=Infraspinatus, TM=Teres Minor, BI=Long head of Biceps. Ligaments: I=Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament, AB=Anterior Band of the IGHL. Also shown: G=Glenoid, Ac=Acromion, Co=Coracoid, CH=Coraco-Humeral Ligament.
Grahic Jump Location
A supero-lateral view of the humerus and scapula, mounted in the experimental fixture. Also shown are the calibration frame, x-ray film cartridge, subluxation arm, and universal joint. The direction of subluxation is towards the bottom of the picture. Radiographic source is above frame of picture.
Grahic Jump Location
An example of an anterior-inferior radiographic view (inverted) used in SRG reconstruction. The scapula is off the frame of the radiograph, to the left. The direction of subluxation is out of the page. Denoted are the calibration frame, calibration markers, and 60 object markers on the AIC.
Grahic Jump Location
Infero-medial view of the three dimensionally reconstructed Antero-Inferior Capsule (AIC) in nominal strain and strained states. The bottom row of elements corresponds to the 6 o’clock position on the capsule. The direction of subluxation is antero-inferior, as shown in the axes of the figure.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of experimental methodology, showing progression of experiment from specimen to SRG to strain calculation. Nominal strain state (X ) includes pressure (P), distraction (D), and rotation (R) as variables. Strained state (x ) includes muscle forces (Fm) and subluxation (S). Direct linear transform (DLT) algorithm reconstructs three-dimensional positions of markers. Strain (ε) is calculated from X and x states.
Grahic Jump Location
Maximum principal strains of the AIC in three specimens, from glenoid to humerus, at 16 mm subluxation (orientation specified in Fig. 6(a)). Dashed lines denote borders of the anterior band of the IGHL when distinct within the AIC. First and last columns represent the AIC insertion zones. Four shoulders displayed high strains typically on the glenoid side (e.g., Fig. 6(a) and 6(b)) while the other four shoulders displayed a more even distribution of strain (e.g., Fig. 6(c)). The most typical high strain region occurred on the glenoid side near the inferior border of the AIC. Other subluxations generally appeared to be scaled from these plots.
Grahic Jump Location
Vectors showing total principal strain directions and magnitudes at 16 mm subluxation in a typical specimen. Maximum principal strain vectors were relatively consistent for all specimens, typically directed from the inferior glenoid border to the superior humeral border. The direction of the maximum principal strain was misaligned with the AB-IGHL by 38±36 deg.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In