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Research Papers

Characterization of Thigh and Shank Segment Angular Velocity During Jump Landing Tasks Commonly Used to Evaluate Risk for ACL Injury

[+] Author and Article Information
Ariel V. Dowling

 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4008; Bone and Joint Center, Palo Alto VA, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1207adowling@stanford.edu

Julien Favre

 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4008jfavre@stanford.edu

Thomas P. Andriacchi

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4008;  Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305-2200Bone and Joint Center, Palo Alto, VA, Palo, Alto, CA 94304-1207tandriac@stanford.edu

J Biomech Eng 134(9), 091006 (Aug 27, 2012) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007178 History: Received April 16, 2012; Revised July 11, 2012; Posted July 18, 2012; Published August 27, 2012; Online August 27, 2012

The dynamic movements associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during jump landing suggest that limb segment angular velocity can provide important information for understanding the conditions that lead to an injury. Angular velocity measures could provide a quick and simple method of assessing injury risk without the constraints of a laboratory. The objective of this study was to assess the inter-subject variations and the sensitivity of the thigh and shank segment angular velocity in order to determine if these measures could be used to characterize jump landing mechanisms. Additionally, this study tested the correlation between angular velocity and the knee abduction moment. Thirty-six healthy participants (18 male) performed drop jumps with bilateral and unilateral landing. Thigh and shank angular velocities were measured by a wearable inertial-based system, and external knee moments were measured using a marker-based system. Discrete parameters were extracted from the data and compared between systems. For both jumping tasks, the angular velocity curves were well defined movement patterns with high inter-subject similarity in the sagittal plane and moderate to good similarity in the coronal and transverse planes. The angular velocity parameters were also able to detect differences between the two jumping tasks that were consistent across subjects. Furthermore, the coronal angular velocities were significantly correlated with the knee abduction moment (R of 0.28–0.51), which is a strong indicator of ACL injury risk. This study suggested that the thigh and shank angular velocities, which describe the angular dynamics of the movement, should be considered in future studies about ACL injury mechanisms.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

Unilateral jump angular velocity curves for shank and thigh segments in sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes (axis are according to Fig. 1). IC is indicated by black circles and MAX is indicated by white stars.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

Illustration of the relationship between coronal SAV and external knee abduction moment. (A) Positive thigh SAV tends to increase the knee abduction moment, (B) positive shank SAV tends to decrease the knee abduction moment, (C) positive difference between thigh and shank SAVs tends to increase knee abduction moment.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Bilateral jump angular velocity curves for shank and thigh segments in sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes (axes are according to Fig. 1). IC is indicated by black circles, and MAX is indicated by white stars.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Experimental setup of the wearable system and the camera-based system markers. Wearable system IMUs identified with white oval. Positive axes convention for SAV identified for medial/lateral (M-L), posterior/anterior (P-A), and inferior/superior (I-S) axes.

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