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Research Papers

The Effect of Low-Magnitude, High-Frequency Vibration Stimuli on the Bone Healing of Rat Incisor Extraction Socket

[+] Author and Article Information
Takashi Kono, Yasuko Moriyama, Kiyoshi Koyano

Section of Implant and Rehabilitative Dentistry, Division of Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dental Science,  Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Yasunori Ayukawa1

Section of Implant and Rehabilitative Dentistry, Division of Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dental Science,  Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japanayukawa@dent.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Kosaku Kurata, Hiroshi Takamatsu

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,  Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 134(9), 091001 (Aug 27, 2012) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007247 History: Received December 07, 2011; Revised July 17, 2012; Posted July 27, 2012; Published August 27, 2012; Online August 27, 2012

Effects of small vibration stimuli on bone formation have been reported. In the present study, we used morphological and morphometric procedures to elucidate whether low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) vibration stimuli could enhance the bone healing of rat incisor extraction sockets. After extraction of incisors from six-week-old rats, animals were assigned into a control group and two experimental groups to receive 50 Hz stimuli at either 0.05 mm or 0.2 mm peak-to-peak for an hour/day. LMHF vibration stimuli were generated by placing the mandibles of the animals onto a vibration generator. All groups were subdivided into two, according to the study periods (1 and 3 weeks). After the study period, undecalcified ground sections were taken and morphological and morphometric analyses performed. At both 1 and 3 weeks, newly formed bone was observed mainly in the upper wall of the extraction socket in all groups. Morphometric analyses revealed that the trabecular thickness in both experimental groups at 1 week was significantly greater than that in the control. LMHF vibration stimuli had a positive effect on bone at the early stage of bone healing, particularly in trabecular thickness, at the incisor extraction socket.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: Bone , Vibration
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Figures

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Figure 1

(a) Intraoral view after extraction of the lower right incisor. (b) Extracted incisor displaying no signs of fracture.

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Figure 5

Bone morphometric parameters. Undecalcified ground sections parallel to the long axis of the second molar and of approximately 70 μm thickness were fabricated from control (“cont”) animals and those that had been treated with LMHF vibration therapy at low (“0.05”) or high (“0.2”) magnitude. Samples were taken either 1 (1w) or 3 (3w) weeks after vibration therapy. Bone volume and trabecular thickness, number, separation, and spacing were quantified. Data are mean ± standard deviation and were statistically analyzed using ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post hoc test, with statistical significance (*,**) accepted at P < 0.05.

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Figure 2

(a) Vibration generator WaveMakerPRO-05 (controller). (b) Method for application of LMHF vibration stimuli. Under general anesthesia, the animal’s mandible was placed on a vibration generator to generate the vibration stimulus. Control animals were treated in the same manner, without the application of vibration.

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Figure 3

(a) The measurement of mandibular displacement. Stainless steel bar is attached to the maxillary molars of both side and occluded by the mandible, then the displacement value of stainless bar is measured and presumed to be a mandibular displacement. Displacement values for experimental group LMHF vibrational stimuli for Group 0.05 (low) (b) and Group 0.2 (high) (c).Square indicates the original vibration and Diamond indicates the displacement value of the rat mandible. Similar waveforms between the original vibration and the actual displacement value are indicated.

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Figure 4

(a) All specimens were cut along the indicated plane at the mesial root of the second molar. (b) Histological images. Rats were injected peritoneally with tetracycline, calcein, and alizarin complexone at various periods prior to specimen generation (see Materials and Methods). Images captured by light and fluorescence microscopic observations of the specimens are shown here (overlay). The strong line of fluorescence at the perimeter of the samples denotes newly formed bone and distinguishes this from the existing bone at the center. At 1 week (top row), newly formed bone can be seen at the upper side in the extraction socket within the apical region of the molar teeth. A dark area observed in the extraction socket region within the section is a blood clot. At 3 weeks (bottom row), more abundant bony trabeculae can be seen and the area of blood clot decreases.

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