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Technical Briefs

Deformable Mock Stenotic Artery With a Lipid Pool

[+] Author and Article Information
V. Pazos, R. Mongrain

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, MacDonald Building, 817 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6, Canada; Research Center, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger Est, Montreal, QC, H1T 1C8, Canada

J. C. Tardif1

Research Center, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger Est, Montreal, QC, H1T 1C8, Canada; Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Pavillon Roger-Gaudry, 2900 boul. Edouard Montpetit, Montreal, QC, H3T 1J4, Canadajean-claude.tardif@icm-mhi.org

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 132(3), 034501 (Feb 08, 2010) (4 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000937 History: Received August 21, 2009; Revised October 12, 2009; Posted January 04, 2010; Published February 08, 2010; Online February 08, 2010

The comparison, evaluation, and optimization of new techniques, models, or algorithms often require the use of realistic deformable test phantoms. The purpose of this paper is to present a multilayer deformable test specimen mimicking an atherosclerotic coronary artery, suitable for mechanical testing and intravascular imaging. Mock arteries were constructed in three phases using two molds: building a first layer of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel, adding a lipid pool and building a second layer of PVA cryogel. To illustrate the deformation of the mock arteries, one has been placed in a custom-made bath, axially stretched then inflated while acquiring intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images. The resulting specimen presents a progressing lumen narrowing of 25% in cross-sectional area at the peak and a lipid pool. The average inner gel layer is about 0.4 mm thick and the outer about 0.6 mm. The dimensions are of the same order as clinical observations, the first gel layer mimicking the intima-media and the second layer the adventitia. In the sequence of IVUS images, the different components of the mock artery are visible and differentiable. The variation in diameter of the segmented contours is presented for a specific specimen subjected to intraluminal pressure. This double-layer stenotic mock artery is approximately the size of a human coronary artery, has a lipid inclusion, can withstand relative large deformation, suitable for (intravascular) ultrasound imaging, and has customizable geometry and wall material parameters.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 2

Chamber with movable axes on which the specimen is fixed

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Figure 3

Nonstenotic cross-section (a) IVUS image and (b) corresponding reconstructed geometry

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Figure 4

Stenotic cross-section (a) IVUS image and (b) corresponding reconstructed geometry

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Figure 5

Profile of double-layer stenotic mock artery with lipid pool, reconstructed from IVUS image acquisition in pullback

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Figure 6

Variation in diameter over initial diameter versus intraluminal pressure for the lumen, the intermediate boundary between the two gel layers, and the outer contour

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