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Research Papers

Strain Measurement of Pure Titanium Covered With Soft Tissue Using X-Ray Diffraction

[+] Author and Article Information
Kazuhiro Fujisaki1

Division of Human Mechanical Systems and Design, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Japanfujiwax@eng.hokudai.ac.jp

Shigeru Tadano

Division of Human Mechanical Systems and Design, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 132(3), 031004 (Feb 04, 2010) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000935 History: Received August 20, 2009; Revised October 23, 2009; Posted January 04, 2010; Published February 04, 2010

Measurement of the stress and strain applied to implants and bone tissue in the human body are important for fracture prediction and evaluations of implant adaptation. The strain of titanium (Ti) materials can be measuring by X-ray diffraction techniques. This study applied X-ray diffraction to the skin tissue-covered Ti. Characteristic X-rays of MoKα were used and the X-rays diffracted from the Ti were detected through the covering skin tissue. The X-ray absorption by skin tissue is large under the diffracted X-rays detected in low angles because the length of penetration depends on the angle of inclination, equal to the Bragg angle. The effects of skin tissue to detect the diffracted X-rays were investigated in the experiments. And the strain measurements were conducted under bending loads applied to the Ti specimen. The effect of skin tissue was absorption of X-rays as well as the X-rays scattered from the physiological saline contained in the tissue. The X-rays scattered by the physiological saline creates a specific background pattern near the peaks from the (002) and (011) lattice planes of Ti in the X-ray diffraction profile. Diffracted X-rays from the Ti were detected after being transmitted through 1 mm thick skin tissue by MoKα. Individual peaks such as (010), (002), (011), and (110) were clearly established by using a parallel beam arrangement. The strains of (110) lattice planes were measured with or without the tissue cover were very similar. The strain of the (110) lattice planes of Ti could be measured by MoKα when the Ti specimen was located under the skin tissue.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

The paths of the incident and diffracted X-rays from Ti crystals under skin and subcutaneous soft tissues

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Figure 2

X-ray absorption ability measurements using a directly transmitted X-ray beam

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Figure 3

X-ray measurement arrangement and the three-point bending device

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Figure 4

X-ray diffraction profiles of Ti specimens with and without skin and ST measured by X-rays of (a) Co Kα, (b) Cu Kα, and (c) Mo Kα

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Figure 5

X-ray diffraction profiles of PS and the tissue-covered Ti specimen (Ti+ST) measured by Cu Kα

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Figure 6

X-ray diffraction profiles of Ti and each of the specimens covering Ti measured by Mo Kα, followed by skin and subcutaneous tissue (Ti+ST), polyester filament saturated with physiological saline (Ti+PS), polyethylene (Ti+PE), and uncovered Ti

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Figure 7

Intensity changes of X-rays transmitted through dried skin tissue

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Figure 8

Intensity changes of X-rays transmitted through physiological saline

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Figure 9

X-ray diffraction profiles measured with parallel beam X-rays (Ti+ST: skin and subcutaneous tissue-covered Ti)

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Figure 10

Strains of the (110) lattice planes of Ti calculated by several methods from the X-ray diffraction profiles measured for the Ti or Ti+ST specimens under bending strain and nonstrained, where SS is the segmental shift method, FWHM is the full width at half maximum method, FWTTM is the full width at two thirds maximum method

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