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Technical Briefs

An Understanding of the Mechanism That Promotes Adhesion Between Roughened Titanium Implants and Mineralized Tissue

[+] Author and Article Information
Jaewoo Shim

Biomedical Engineering Interdisciplinary Program, UCLA School of Engineering and Applied Science, 32-121 Engineering IV, 420 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095jwshim8@yahoo.com

Hiromi Nakamura

The Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, UCLA School of Dentistry, P.O. Box 951668, CHS B3-087, Los Angeles, CA 90095hnakamur@ucla.edu

Takahiro Ogawa

The Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, UCLA School of Dentistry, P.O. Box 951668, CHS B3-087, Los Angeles, CA 90095tack@dent.ucla.edu

Vijay Gupta

Department of Mechanical Engineering, UCLA School of Engineering and Applied Science, 38-137E Engineering IV, 420 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095vgupta@ucla.edu

J Biomech Eng 131(5), 054503 (Mar 27, 2009) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3078163 History: Received February 01, 2008; Revised November 12, 2008; Published March 27, 2009

A previously developed laser spallation technique to determine the tensile strength of thin film interfaces was successfully adopted to study the effect of microsurface roughness of titanium disks on the adhesion strength of mineralized bone tissue. The study demonstrated that mineralized tissue has about 25% higher interfacial strength when it is cultured on the acid-etched titanium surface than on its machined counterpart. Specifically, interfacial tensile strength of 179±4.4MPa and 224±2.6MPa were measured when the mineralized tissue was processed on the machined titanium and acid-etched titanium surfaces, respectively. Since in the laser spallation experiment, the mineralized tissue is pulled normal to the interface, this increase is attributed to the stronger interfacial bonding on account of higher surface energy associated with the acid-etched surface. This enhanced local chemical bonding further enhances the roughness-related mechanical interlocking effect. These two effects at very different length scales—atomic (enhanced bonding) versus continuum (roughness-related interlocking)—act synergistically and explain the widely observed clinical success of roughened dental implants.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Basic setup of the laser spallation technique

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Figure 2

SEM micrographs showing the surface morphology of the machined (A) and acid-etched (B) titanium disks

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Figure 3

Experimental setup used to test the Ti/mineralized tissue interface

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Figure 4

Scanning electron micrographs showing the areas from where the mineralized tissue was detached from a machined Ti surface at laser energies of (a) 1130 mJ, (b) 1280 mJ, (c) 1400 mJ, and (d) 1447 mJ

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Figure 5

Scanning electron micrographs showing the areas from where the mineralized tissue was detached from an acid-etched Ti surface at laser energies of (a) 1445 mJ, (b) 1550 mJ, (c) 1640 mJ, and (d) 1997 mJ

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Figure 6

Interferometrically recorded fringes from a Ti free surface and related curve-fitted profiles at laser energies of (a) 1068 mJ, (b) 1150 mJ, (c) 1742 mJ, and (d) 2042 mJ

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Figure 7

Relationship between C and laser energy for a Ti substrate. Also shown is a fitted curve to the experimental data, which was used in the finite element simulations.

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Figure 8

Interferometrically reduced stress wave profiles in a titanium disk at laser energies of 1068 mJ, 1150 mJ, 1742 mJ, and 2042 mJ. The stress wave amplitude is proportional to the laser energy.

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Figure 9

Calculated interface stress histories at the Ti/mineralized tissue interface for the machined and acid-etched samples

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Figure 10

Comparison between analytical and FEA solutions

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