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Research Papers

Linear and Torsional Mechanical Characteristics of Intact and Reconstructed Scapholunate Ligaments

[+] Author and Article Information
Rad Zdero1

Martin Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B-1W8zderor@smh.toronto.on.ca

Michael Olsen

Martin Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B-1W8

Salah Elfatori

 Ottawa General Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1H-8L6

Tom Skrinskas, Cari Whyne

Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada M4N-3M5

Hamid Nourhosseini

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G-1L5

Emil H. Schemitsch

Martin Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B-1W8

Herb von Schroeder

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; University Hand Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada M5T-2S8

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 131(4), 041009 (Feb 04, 2009) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3005149 History: Received November 19, 2007; Revised June 13, 2008; Published February 04, 2009

The mechanical behavior of human scapholunate ligaments is not well understood. Presently, intact scapholunate specimens were mechanically tested in linear distraction and torsion. Fresh bovine tendon grafts were used to reconstruct the scapholunate interval and the tests repeated. Tests yielded the following average values for intact specimens: linear stiffness (48.9Nmm), linear load retained at 100s (44%), torsional stiffness (19.5Nmmdeg), torque remaining at 100seconds (66%), torque-to-failure (1253.9 N mm), and angle-to-failure (50.4deg). Tests showed the following average values for reconstructed specimens: linear stiffness (5.4Nmm), linear load retained at 100s (49%), torsional stiffness (12.6Nmmdeg), torque remaining at 100s (71%), torque-to-failure (936.8Nmm), and angle-to-failure (54.5deg). There were no statistically significant differences between the intact and reconstructed specimens, with the exception of linear stiffness. Biomechanically, this is the first study in the literature to quantify torsional stress relaxation, failure torque, and failure angle for the intact and repaired human scapholunate ligament. Surgically, reconstruction with bovine tendon may warrant further investigation as a method to potentially retain function and strength after scapholunate injury.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Experimental setup with cemented scapholunate bone-ligament-bone complex in place for testing intact and reconstructed specimens. Linear and torsional test regimes were applied separately, rather than simultaneously. Reproduced by permission (36).

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Figure 2

Linear and torsional load regimes under displacement control applied to the scapholunate specimens

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Figure 3

Scapholunate reconstruction was performed via four 2.5mm drill holes: two through the proximal scaphoid and two parallel ones through the lunate. All holes were directed from the dorsal to the volar surfaces of the bones. A bovine tendon graft was woven through each pair of holes. Each graft was knotted and oversewn with suture.

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Figure 4

Raw linear and torsional force-time behaviors typical of intact and reconstructed scapholunate specimens in response to applied linear and torsional displacement regimes.

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Figure 5

Typical linear force-displacement and torsional torque-angle behavior of the intact human scapholunate ligament during the ramp up phase. The specimens reconstructed with bovine tendon demonstrated similar characteristics. For presentation purposes, any residual forces and torques from experimental setup are not shown so that the graphs start at the graph origin.

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