Research Papers

Development and Validation of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Model of the Face

[+] Author and Article Information
G. G. Barbarino

Department of Mechanical Engineering, IMES, ETH Zurich, Tannenstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerlandgiuseppe.barbarino@imes.mavt.ethz.ch

M. Jabareen

Department of Mechanical Engineering, IMES, ETH Zurich, Tannenstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland

J. Trzewik

 Johnson & Johnson Medical GmbH, Robert-Koch-Strasse 1, 22851 Norderstedt, Germany

A. Nkengne, G. Stamatas

Johnson & Johnson Consumer France SAS, Skin Care Research Institute, 92787 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France

E. Mazza

Department of Mechanical Engineering, IMES,  ETH Zurich, Tannenstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland; EMPA-Materials Science & Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerlandedoardo.mazza@imes.mavt.ethz.ch

J Biomech Eng 131(4), 041006 (Feb 02, 2009) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3049857 History: Received February 27, 2008; Revised October 07, 2008; Published February 02, 2009

A detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the face is presented in this paper. Bones, muscles, skin, fat, and superficial muscoloaponeurotic system were reconstructed from magnetic resonance images and modeled according to anatomical, plastic, and reconstructive surgery literature. The finite element mesh, composed of hexahedron elements, was generated through a semi-automatic procedure with an effective compromise between the detailed representation of anatomical parts and the limitation of the computational time. Nonlinear constitutive equations are implemented in the finite element model. The corresponding model parameters were selected according to previous work with mechanical measurements on soft facial tissue, or based on reasonable assumptions. Model assumptions concerning tissue geometry, interactions, mechanical properties, and the boundary conditions were validated through comparison with experiments. The calculated response of facial tissues to gravity loads, to the application of a pressure inside the oral cavity and to the application of an imposed displacement was shown to be in good agreement with the data from corresponding magnetic resonance images and holographic measurements. As a first application, gravimetric soft tissue descent was calculated from the long time action of gravity on the face in the erect position, with tissue aging leading to a loss of stiffness. Aging predictions are compared with the observations from an “aging database” with frontal photos of volunteers at different age ranges (i.e., 20–40 years and 50–70 years).

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Examples from the MR scan image set: (a) transversal sections and (b) a sagittal, a coronal, and a transverse section

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Figure 2

FE face model: (a) mimic muscles attached at modiolus, skull, and mandibula; (b) remaining mimic muscles; (c) representation with all mimic muscles; (d) muscles of mastication; (e) skin ligaments; and (f) skin: FE mesh and part of skin reconstructed for display purposes (light gray)

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Figure 3

MRI slice and corresponding 3D reconstruction: (a) and (d) reference face shape; (b) and (e) head in “upside down” position; and (c) and (f) wooden balls inserted. In Fig. 3 the skin contour of Fig. 3 is drawn in white.

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Figure 4

(a) and (b) change of face shape evaluated as distance of the deformed skin surface from the reference surface (values in millimeters); (a) experimental result, (b) FE simulation, and (c) direct comparison of deformed surfaces: distance of the experimental surface from the simulated surface

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Figure 5

3D reconstructions ((a)–(b)) and MRI transversal sections ((c)–(d)) of the face. Corresponding transversal sections of the FE model ((e)–(f)). On the left: reference case, on the right: wooden ball inserted.

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Figure 6

(a) and (b) change in face shape evaluated as distance of the deformed skin surface from the reference surface (values in millimeters); (a) experimental result, (b) FE simulation, (c) difference in the distances displayed in (a) and (b)

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Figure 7

Calculated skin vertical displacement of the aged face (mm): (a) frontal view and (b) perspective view

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Figure 8

Face profile (right side): (a) aging database, average face contour at ages 30 years and 60 years, and (b) face contour extracted from the FE element model: initial (solid) and aged (dashed)

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Figure 9

Vertical distance between the young and aged face profiles extracted from the aging database (dash-dotted) and the FE model (dashed). The absolute value of the difference in the two distances is also displayed (solid line). The horizontal axis of this figure corresponds to the one of Figs.  88.

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Figure 10

FE simulation for case (ii) with a new set of kinematic boundary conditions; (a) new constrained nodes highlighted, (b) change in face shape evaluated as distance of the deformed from the reference skin surfaces, and (c) difference in the distances displayed in Figs.  410.




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