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Research Papers

Noninvasive Blood Perfusion Measurements of an Isolated Rat Liver and an Anesthetized Rat Kidney

[+] Author and Article Information
Ashvinikumar V. Mudaliar

 Modine Manufacturing Co., 1500 DeKoven Avenue, Racine, WI 53403-2552

Brent E. Ellis, Patricia L. Ricketts, Thomas E. Diller

 Virginia Tech—Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061

Otto I. Lanz

 Virginia Tech—Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061

Charles Y. Lee

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Boulevard, Charlotte, NC 28223

Elaine P. Scott

 Virginia Tech—Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061; Department of Engineering, Seattle Pacific University, 3307 3rd Avenue West, Seattle, WA 98119-1997

J Biomech Eng 130(6), 061013 (Oct 15, 2008) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2978989 History: Received July 25, 2007; Revised May 14, 2008; Published October 15, 2008

A simple, cost effective, and noninvasive blood perfusion system is tested in animal models. The system uses a small sensor to measure the heat transfer response to a thermal event (convective cooling) imposed on the tissue surface. Heat flux data are compared with a mathematical model of the tissue to estimate both blood perfusion and thermal contact resistance between the tissue and the probe. The perfusion system was evaluated for repeatability and sensitivity using isolated rat liver and exposed rat kidney tests. Perfusion in the isolated liver tests was varied by controlling the flow of the perfusate into the liver, and the perfusion in the exposed kidney tests was varied by temporarily occluding blood flow through the renal artery and vein. The perfusion estimated by the convective perfusion probe was in good agreement with that of the metered flow of the perfusate into the liver model. The liver tests indicated that the probe can be used to detect small changes in perfusion (0.005 ml/ml/s). The probe qualitatively tracked the changes in the perfusion in the kidney model due to occlusion of the renal artery and vein.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 5

Data acquisition used for liver and kidney test

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Figure 1

Schematic of convective blood perfusion probe system

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Figure 6

Experimental setup for the isolated liver test

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Figure 7

Probe on isolated liver for perfusion measurements

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Figure 8

Experimental setup for the exposed kidney model

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Figure 9

Repeatability and sensitivity of the blood perfusion probe for the liver model

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Figure 10

Typical sensor surface temperature history

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Figure 11

Liver perfusion estimates

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Figure 12

Thermal contact resistance for liver tests

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Figure 13

Average perfusion estimates for the rat kidney

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Figure 14

Heat flux response from the kidney model with artery occlusion followed by opening

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Figure 2

Convective blood perfusion probe

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Figure 3

Schematic of finite-difference model of sensor and tissue

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Figure 4

Estimation method for the blood perfusion ω and thermal contact resistance RC

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