The ongoing need for a clinically effective noninvasive technique for monitoring implant stability has led to a number of testing methods based on the concept of resonant frequency. Resonant frequency measurements are an indirect measure of the bone-implant interface integrity and do not provide any specific measures of the physical properties of the interface itself. In this study, an analytical model has been developed to interpret the measurement results of an impact testing method based on the Periotest® handpiece. Model results are compared to a variety of in vitro tests to verify model predictions and to gain an understanding of the parameters influencing the measurements. Model simulations are then used to predict how changes in the supporting stiffness properties, material loss around the neck of the implant, and the presence of an implant flange will affect the measurements. The developed analytical model, in conjunction with the impact measurements, allows direct estimation of the bone properties that support implants. Model simulations show the impact testing technique to be sensitive to bone loss and stiffness changes that would correspond to poorly integrated implants (ones which may be in danger of failing). Similarly, for implants with very stiff support, little useful quantitative data can be obtained about the bone supporting the implant, as the stiffness of the other components of the system dominate the response. However, such implants are generally considered healthy.