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Research Papers

Comparison of Particle Image Velocimetry and Phase Contrast MRI in a Patient-Specific Extracardiac Total Cavopulmonary Connection

[+] Author and Article Information
Hiroumi D. Kitajima, Kartik S. Sundareswaran, Thomas Z. Teisseyre, Garrett W. Astary

Cardiovascular Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, U. A. Whitaker Building, 313 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0535

W. James Parks

Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, 1440 Clifton Road North East, Atlanta, GA 30322

Oskar Skrinjar

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0535

John N. Oshinski

 Emory University School of Medicine, 1440 Clifton Road North East, Atlanta, GA 30322

Ajit P. Yoganathan1

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, U. A. Whitaker Building, 313 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0535; Emory University School of Medicine, 1440 Clifton Road North East, Atlanta, GA 30322ajit.yoganathan@bme.gatech.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 130(4), 041004 (May 23, 2008) (14 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2900725 History: Received November 20, 2006; Revised February 12, 2008; Published May 23, 2008

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) have not been compared in complex biofluid environments. Such analysis is particularly useful to investigate flow structures in the correction of single ventricle congenital heart defects, where fluid dynamic efficiency is essential. A stereolithographic replica of an extracardiac total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is studied using PIV and PC-MRI in a steady flow loop. Volumetric two-component PIV is compared to volumetric three-component PC-MRI at various flow conditions. Similar flow structures are observed in both PIV and PC-MRI, where smooth flow dominates the extracardiac TCPC, and superior vena cava flow is preferential to the right pulmonary artery, while inferior vena cava flow is preferential to the left pulmonary artery. Where three-component velocity is available in PC-MRI studies, some helical flow in the extracardiac TCPC is observed. Vessel cross sections provide an effective means of validation for both experiments, and velocity magnitudes are of the same order. The results highlight similarities to validate flow in a complex patient-specific extracardiac TCPC. Additional information obtained by velocity in three components further describes the complexity of the flow in anatomic structures.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

(a) Intra-atrial and (b) extracardiac TCPC, where RA is the right atrium, RV is the right ventricle, SVC is the superior vena cava, IVC is the inferior vena cava, MPA is the main pulmonary artery, LPA is the left pulmonary artery, RPA is the right pulmonary artery, and C is the conduit (9)

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Figure 4

In vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow loop

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Figure 5

(a) Flowcharts for PIV and (b) in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry postprocessing

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Figure 6

(a) Volumetric two-component PIV and (b) volumetric three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from an oblique perspective at a CO of 2l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow rate ratio of 30∕70. Vxy denotes the magnitude of velocities in the RL and SI directions.

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Figure 7

(a) Volumetric two-component PIV and (b) volumetric three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from an oblique perspective at a CO of 2l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow rate ratio of 50∕50. Vxy denotes the magnitude of velocities in the RL and SI directions.

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Figure 8

(a) Volumetric two-component PIV and (b) volumetric three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from an oblique perspective at a CO of 4l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow rate ratio of 30∕70. Vxy denotes the magnitude of velocities in the RL and SI directions.

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Figure 9

(a) Volumetric two-component PIV and (b) volumetric three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from an oblique perspective at a CO of 4l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow rate ratio of 30∕70. Vxy denotes the magnitude of velocities in the RL and SI directions.

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Figure 10

(a) Volumetric two-component PIV and (b) volumetric three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from an oblique perspective at a CO of 4l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow rate ratio of 30∕70. Vxy denotes the magnitude of velocities in the RL and SI directions.

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Figure 11

Streamtraces of (a) volumetric two-component PIV and (b) volumetric three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from an oblique perspective at a CO of 4l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow rate ratio of 30∕70. Vxy denotes the magnitude of velocities in the RL and SI directions.

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Figure 12

Streamtraces of (a) volumetric two-component PIV and (b) volumetric three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from the coronal perspective at a CO of 2l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow rate ratio of 30∕70. Vxy denotes the magnitude of velocities in the RL and SI directions.

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Figure 13

Streamtraces of (a) volumetric two-component PIV and (b) volumetric three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from the sagittal perspective at a CO of 2l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow rate ratio of 30∕70. Vxy denotes the magnitude of velocities in the RL and SI directions.

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Figure 14

Streamtraces of (a) volumetric two-component PIV and (b) volumetric three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from an oblique perspective at a CO of 4l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow rate ratio of 30∕70. Vxy denotes the magnitude of velocities in the RL and SI directions.

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Figure 15

SVC cross sections of (a) volumetric two-component PIV and (b) volumetric three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from the axial perspective at a CO of 4l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow rate ratio of 30∕70. Vxy denotes the magnitude of velocities in the RL and SI directions.

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Figure 16

IVC cross sections of (a) volumetric two-component PIV and (b) volumetric three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from the axial perspective at a CO of 4l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow rate ratio of 30∕70. Vxy denotes the magnitude of velocities in the RL and SI directions.

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Figure 17

LPA cross sections of (a) volumetric two-component PIV and (b) volumetric three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from the sagittal perspective at a CO of 4l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow rate ratio of 30∕70. Vxy denotes the magnitude of velocities in the RL and SI directions.

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Figure 18

RPA cross sections of (a) volumetric two-component PIV and (b) volumetric three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from the sagittal perspective at a CO of 4l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow rate ratio of 30∕70. Vxy denotes the magnitude of velocities in the RL and SI directions.

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Figure 19

PC-MRI-PIV difference plot

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Figure 20

(a) Full field and (b) coronal cut of percent difference between volumetric two-component PIV and volumetric three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from the coronal perspective at a CO of 4l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow ratio of 30∕70

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Figure 21

Coronal cross sections of (a) planar two-component PIV and (b) planar three-component in vitro PC-MRI velocimetry flow fields in an extracardiac TCPC (CHOA007) from an oblique perspective at a CO of 4l∕min and a LPA/RPA flow ratio of 30∕70

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